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★★★★★_新标准大学英语综合教程课后辅导

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★★★★★_新标准大学英语综合教程课后辅导

Diary of a fresher 《大一新生日记》在西方,写作并出版个人日记是一项长期的传统。该文是一篇日记形式的记叙文,采用一般现在时,以第一人称记叙了作者上大学第一周的经历。作者用幽默的语言和夸张的手法表现初上大学的感受,用词浅显易懂,轻松诙谐。由于是非正式的文体,文中多处句子省略了主语,学习时需注意这一点。

【思考】 同样作为大一新生,你的入学感受是什么?

1. (Lines 4-5, Para. 1) Finally, with my mother red in the face and short of breath, we find Room 8, … 等我们终于找到8号房间的时候,妈妈已经涨红了脸,累得上气不接下气……

【结构分析】 with在此处引导一个表示伴随的状语,译成汉语时将状语移到主句之后,with可省略。

2. (Lines 1-2, Para. 2) The room is barely big enough for one, and certainly not big enough for the whole family. 这个房间刚刚够一个人住,很明显容不下一家人。

adv. ① 仅仅,勉强地(见例句)

② 贫乏地,简陋地:The room was furnished barely. 这房间陈设简陋。

③ 刚刚(强调某事迅速发生在某个动作之后):She'd barely sat down before he started firing questions at her. 她刚坐下,他就开始向她提出一连串的问题。

3. (Para. 3) Lucky my brother and my dog didn't come too. 幸亏我哥哥和我的狗没一起来。

【结构分析】 该句是省略句,原句应为It's lucky that my brother and my dog didn't come too. 这句体现了日记语言口语化的特点。下文如 “(I) Don't know. I was too late for breakfast.” (Para. 12)以及(I'm) Not feeling very hungry any more. (Para. 14) 等都省略了主语。

4. (Lines 1-3, Para. 5) I meet my tutor, who…looks determined to be pleasant. 我见到了我的导师,他个子高高的,肩膀厚实,看上去很想表现得亲切友好。

adj. ① 有决心的,意志坚定的:a determined young woman 一位意志坚定的年轻女士

② (尤指在困境中)坚决的,坚定的:determined attempts / effort / opposition, etc 坚定的尝试/努力/坚决的反对

【固定搭配】

① determined to do sth. 决心做:I am determined to find out who is responsible for this. 我决意要弄清楚谁该对此事负责任。

② determined (that) 坚信:He was determined that the same mistakes would not be repeated. 他坚信同样的错误不会再犯。

派生词

① determination n. [U]决心,坚定,毅力

determination to do sth 做某事的决心:Her determination to do well made her keep on studying. 她想取得好成绩的决心使得她坚持学习下去。

② determinism n. [U]决定论(相信某人所做的事或发生在某人身上的事是由他无法控制的力量决定的)

5. (Lines 1-3, Para. 6) As he speaks, he moves his head from side to side, which makes his coffee spill into the saucer. 他边说话边晃动脑袋,咖啡都洒到杯托里了。

v. ① 溢出,使泼出,洒落(见例句)spill sth down / on / over

vi. ② (人群)涌出:Crowds from the theatre were spilling onto the street.人群从戏院涌到了街上。

【固定搭配】

① spill the beans (非正式)泄露(别人的)秘密,走漏风声

② cry over spilt milk 为打翻的牛奶哭泣;作无益的悔恨

6. (Lines 5-6, Para. 19) She impresses me, and I feel so ignorant that I shouldn't even breathe the same air as her. 她给我留下了深刻的印象,我觉得自己太无知了,甚至不配跟她呼吸同样的空气。

 该句运用了夸张和幽默的手法,表现了作者和苏菲之间的差距——苏菲比作者更聪明,懂得更多,也更热情。

【词汇难点】 ignorant adj. 无知的,没有学识的:an ignorant and uneducated man 不学无术的人

【固定搭配】

① ignorant of 对……一无所知:They were ignorant of events outside their own town. 他们对镇外的事情一无所知。

② ignorant about 在……方面无知的: I'm very ignorant about politics. 我对政治一窍不通。

【派生词】

ignorance n. [U]无知,愚昧:Knowledge makes humble; ignorance makes proud. [谚]知识使人谦虚,无知使人骄傲。

Ignorance is bliss. 无知是福。

7. (Lines 2-4, Para. 21) We both agree that…, so I sign up for ballroom dancing,… 我们俩都认为我们应该多结交朋友,所以我报名参加了交谊舞俱乐部……

v. 经报名参加(课程学习):I'm thinking of signing up for the philosophy course this term. 我在考虑报名这个学期的哲学课。

8. (Lines 2-3, Para. 23) Mum assures me that it's mine for as long as I need it,… 妈妈向我保证只要我需要,那间房永远是我的……

vt. 保证,使确信,让……放心

【固定搭配】

assure sb that: He assured us that everything would be all right. 他向我们保证一切都不会有问题。

assure sb of sth向某人保证: The dealer assured me of its quality. 经销商向我保证了它的质量。

【派生词】

assured adj.

① 自信的:an assured manner 自信的态度

② 确定的,有把握的:Her political future looks assured. 她的政治前途看来是有把握的。

【固定搭配】

be assured of有信心,有把握: John was assured of her ability to solve the problem. 约翰确信她有解决该问题的能力。

assurance n. [U]

① 自信,把握:She spoke in a tone of quiet assurance. 她以不慌不忙的自信口气说话。

② 担任,保证:Despite my repeated assurance Rob still looked very nervous. 尽管我再三保证,罗布看起来还是很紧张。

9. (Lines 2-5, Para. 24) For some reason, I have to swear that I won't damage the books or break the library rules, and if I do, I'll be sent to prison. 不知为什么,我必须发誓不损坏书籍、不违反图书馆的规定,否则就要被送进监狱。

 这一句仍然是用夸张手法表现的幽默。所有的图书馆都有规定,但违反规定的人不会被送进监狱。for some reason 暗示作者不明白为什么她必须发誓遵守图书馆的规定。实际上她是在委婉地抗议这种做法。

10. (Lines 1-2, Para. 25) There's a disco tonight, but I've run out of clean clothes. 今晚有个迪斯科舞会,可我已经没有干净衣服穿了。

phr. v. (将贮存的)用完,耗尽:We've run out of money. What a bore! 我们的钱用完了。真麻烦!

【固定搭配】

run out of steam (又作run out of gas [美]) 泄气,提不起劲:The whole team seemed to have run out of gas. 全队似乎都失去了热情。

1. 【休假学年/空档年】 高中毕业之后,上大学之前的一年。国外学生常常用这一年休假、旅游或打工, 以积累工作经验、拓宽视野、锻炼独立性格、尝试挣钱。部分学生选择与自己大学即将学习的专业相关的领域打工,另一些学生则在国内外旅游,了解不同文化,学习外语,积累不同的生活经验。还有些学生因为不知道大学该选择什么专业,也会休学一年,好好思考未来。

2. 【交谊舞】 是起源于西方的国际性的社交舞蹈,由一男一女同舞,又称舞会舞(party dancing)、社交舞(social dancing)、国际舞。最早起源于欧洲,在古老民间舞蹈的基础上发展演变而成。自16、17 世纪起,交谊舞已在欧洲各国成为一种普遍的社交活动,故有“世界语言”之称。到20世纪20年代以后,交谊舞在世界各地风行起来,所以又称为“国际舞”。常见的交谊舞有华尔兹狐步舞探戈等。

3. 【手铃演奏】 是一种六到十人一组的活动,每人每只手拿一只摇铃依次摇动,每只摇铃发出不同音调,合起来就是一首曲子。这来源于国外教堂的一个传统:教堂礼拜即将开始时,要摇铃告诉附近的人们。有时在婚礼上和特殊庆典上也有手铃演奏。

大一新生日记

星期日

从家里出发后,我们开车开了很长一段时间才到达我住的宿舍楼。我进去登记。宿舍管理员给了我一串钥匙,并告诉了我房间号。我的房间在6楼,可电梯坏了。等我们终于找到8号房间的时候,妈妈已经涨红了睑,累得上气不接下气。我打开门锁,我们都走了进去。

但爸爸马上就从里面钻了出来。这个房间刚刚够一个人住,很明显容不下一家人。我可以躺在床上不动一个手指头地碰到三面墙。

幸亏我哥哥和我的狗没一起来。

后来,爸爸妈妈就走了,只剩下我孤零零一个人。周围只有书和一个箱子。接下来我该做什么呢?

星期一

早上,有一个为一年级新生举办的咖啡早茶会。我见到了我的导师,他个子高高的,肩膀厚实,看上去很想表现得亲切友好。

“你是从很远的地方来的吗?”他问我。他边说话边晃动脑袋,咖啡都洒到杯托里了。

“我家离爱丁堡不太远,开车大约6个小时,”我说。

“好极了!”他说,接着又走向站在我旁边的那个女孩儿。“你是从很远的地方来的吗?”他问。

但不等那女孩儿做出任何回答,他就说道,“好极了!”然后继续向前走。他啜了一口咖啡,却惊讶地发现杯子是空的。

妈妈打来电话,问我是不是见到了导师。

星期二

我觉得有点儿饿,这才意识到我已经两天没吃东西了。我下楼去,得知一日三餐我可以在餐厅里吃。我到餐厅排进了长队。

“早餐有什么供应?”我问前面的男生。

“不知道。我来得太晚了,吃不上早餐了。这是午餐。”

午餐是自助餐,今天的菜谱是鸡肉、米饭、土豆沙拉蔬菜奶酪酸奶水果。前面的男生每样儿都取了一些放到托盘上,付了钱,坐下来吃。

我不再觉得那么饿了。

妈妈打电话来,问我有没有好好吃饭。

星期三

早上9点钟我要去听一个讲座。我醒时已经8:45了。竟然没有人叫我起床。奇怪。

我穿好衣服,急匆匆地赶到大讲堂。我在一个睡眼惺忪的女生旁边坐下。她看了看我,问道:“刚起床?”她是怎么看出来的?

讲座进行了1个小时。结束时我看了看笔记,我根本就看不懂自己写的字。

那个女生名叫苏菲,和我一样,也是英语文学专业的学生。她看起来非常聪明。听完讲座后我们一起闲聊。她告诉我在空档年(高中毕业后,上大学之前休假的一年)里,她已经把这学期书单上的书全都读完了。她给我留下了深刻的印象,我觉得自己太无知了,甚至不配跟她呼吸同样的空气。

妈妈打来电话,问我睡得好不好。

星期四

今天有新生集会(社团招新活动)。我和苏菲跑去看我们能加入几个俱乐部。我们俩都认为我们应该多结交朋友,所以我报名参加了交谊舞俱乐部、人工智能协会、手铃俱乐部和极限运动俱乐部。苏菲则报名参加了业余剧社和莫扎特合唱团。

我不知道我和苏菲还能不能继续做好朋友。

妈妈来电话了,说哥哥一度想把我的那间卧室出租。妈妈向我保证只要我需要,那间房永远是我的。她还说那是我的家,他们都非常想我,尤其是我的狗。我一下子就哭了起来。

星期五

早上我去了图书馆。好像我得有一个能证明我身份的证件才能进图书馆。不知为什么,我必须发誓不损坏书籍、不违反图书馆的规定,否则就要被送进监狱。(什么!?就因为说话声音太大?)图书馆看起来很古老,学校以此为豪。

今晚有个迪斯科舞会,可我已经没有干净衣服穿了。我只知道把脏衣服扔进衣篮,但并不清楚衣服是如何洗净、熨平并叠好放进衣柜里的。也许妈妈快来电话了。

Reading and understanding

2 Check the true statements.

1 / 2 / 4 are true.

3 Choose the best way to complete the sentences.

1. a 2. d 3. d 4. d 5. a 6. a

4 Match the words and expressions in the box with their definitions.

1. swear 2. muscle 3. impress 4. sip 5. gap 6. check in

5 Replace the underlined words with the correct form of the words and expressions in the box.

1. barely 2. spill 3. ignorant 4. intelligent 5. sign up 6. assures

7. run out of

6 Answer the questions about the words and expressions.

1. (b) 看守人 2. (a) 老师 3. (a) 和(某人)一起去 4. (b) 出租

Reading and interpreting

7 Work in pairs. Look at the sentences from the passage and answer the questions.

1. Probably not. The writer uses exaggeration to draw readers' implication. His movement which was exaggerated represents his nervousness and shyness about meeting the new students.

2. No, it seems not. The tutor asks everyone the same question “Have you come far?” but his answer of “splendid” does not match with his action and it seems that he is indifferent towards the students.

3. Of course not, he cannot eat so many foods at one meal and this is exaggerated behavior which represents he is either very hungry or greedy.

4. The writer thinks that Sophie is superior, very academic and more intelligent than himself. The comment about breathing the same air is exaggeration to show his self-inferiority.

Developing critical thinking

8 Work in pairs and discuss the questions.

1. Many people would say “yes”, but this is largely a question of what individuals find funny. The passage has humorous use of language, exaggeration, leaves quite a lot unsaid and may even seem a bit cynical, so if you like these elements, you will probably think it is funny.

2. This is a question of personal experience. Some students may say that they had a similar experience in that their parents phoned them quite frequently in the first weeks of their university life, saying they missed them. While some students may remember the hard days when they ran out of clean clothes and had to wash them on their own.

3. A Chinese university, compared with a British university, has huge numbers of students, staff, and a large self-contained campus which includes more shops and social facilities than a British campus. And most or nearly all Chinese students live in the hall of residence. This is common in the first year in the UK, but much less after that.

4. Some Chinese students will dislike the British tutor's indifferent and unfriendly attitude towards the freshmen and the university life which begins with loneliness. Furthermore, the reader may be surprised that the writer doesn't seem to have many lectures or classes.

Extract from Tis: A Memoir 《回忆录》(节选)该书是纽约著名中学教师、普利策奖得主弗兰克·麦考特继畅销回忆录《安琪拉的灰烬》(Angela's Ashes)之后的第二部自传体小说,讲述他19岁只身来到美国后的奋斗经历。本文记叙了作者一边打工一边重拾学业期间在大学课堂上的见闻和感想。

【思考】 作为移民,应该如何应对文化冲击?

1. (Lines 4-9, Para. 1) I don't know why I have to be introduced to literature but the woman in the admissions office says it's a requirement even though I've read Dostoyevsky and Melville and that's admirable for someone without a high school education. 我不知道为什么我非得了解文学。可是入学申请办公室的那位女士说,虽然我读过陀思妥耶夫斯基和梅尔维尔的小说,虽然一个没上过高中的人能读这些书的确令人敬佩,但这门课是必修课。

【结构分析】 原句比较长,译成汉语要用短句,says引导的宾语从句中包含一个由even though引导的让步状语从句,翻译时要将状语从句提前。此外,在why I have to be introduced to literature中的被动语态应译为主动语态。

2. (Lines 9-12, Para. 1) She says The History of Education in America course will provide me with the broad cultural background I need after my inadequate European education. 她说由于我接受的欧洲教育不全面,“美国教育史”能使我具备广博的文化背景知识。

adj. ① 不够好的;不足的;不熟练的:An inadequate supply of vitamin A can lead to blindness. 维生素A不足会导致失明。

② (人自以为)不胜任的;能力不足的:The teacher made us feel inadequate and stupid if we made mistakes. 我们一出错,老师就让我们觉得自己能力差,脑子笨。

【固定搭配】

inadequate for 对……来说不足:The packing facilities are inadequate for such a busy shopping centre. 对这样热闹的购物中心来说,停车设施不够完备。

【派生词】

inadequacy n.

① [U](指人)不够好,不胜任:Unemployment can often cause feelings of inadequacy and low self-esteem. 失业往往使人感到不能胜任工作和自卑

② [U](质量、能力、大小等)不足,欠缺:the inadequacy of local health care 当地医疗保健制度的不健全

③ [C](性格上的)缺点,不足之处:I'm quite aware of my own inadequacies. 我很清楚自身的不足之处。

3. (Lines 1-2, Para. 2) I'm in heaven and the first thing to do is buy the required textbooks… 我乐得飘飘然了,第一件事就是去买所需要的课本……

【结构分析】 当说话者用含有do的名词从句作主语时,如作表语的是动词短语时,就要用动词原形。如:

① All I could do was call for help. 我们所有能做的就是呼救。

② What a fire door does is delay the spread of a fire long enough for people to get out. 防火门的用处就是减缓火的蔓延,让人们逃跑。

【词汇难点】 I'm in heaven 表现出作者开心得宛如置身天堂,因为他成为了一名大学生,即将接受真正的大学教育。(此处要结合作者的出身背景去体会他极度高兴的心理状态,他从小在爱尔兰的贫民窟长大,13岁即辍学)

4. (Lines 6-8, Para. 3) All around me are students scribbling away in their notebooks and I wish I knew what to scribble myself. 我周围的同学全都在不停地记笔记。我真希望自己也知道记点儿什么。

vt. ① 潦草地写:I scribbled his phone number in my address book. 我在地址簿上潦草地写下他的电话号码。

vi. ② 乱涂,乱画,乱写:Don't scribble on the desk like that! 不要这样在桌子上乱写乱画!

n. [U]又作scribbles:(尤指小孩的)涂鸦

[singular, U]潦草的书写

【派生词】

scribbler n. [C][非正式](无足轻重的)作家

【同根词】

scribe n. [C](尤指在印刷术发明之前的)抄写员; v. 写

script n. ① [C](演讲的)讲稿;剧本

② [C,U](一种语言的)全套字母,文字体系

③ [singular, U][正式]笔迹,手迹

manuscript n. [C]手稿,底稿;手抄本

postscript n. [C]① 缩写为PS(信末签名后的)附言,又及

② (故事、叙述末尾的)附言,补充说明

transcribe v. ① 誊写,抄写

② 记下(所说的话)

transcript n. [C]① 抄本,副本

② [美](大学的)学生成绩单

5. (Lines 8-10, Para. 3) How am I supposed to know what's important out of all the things she's saying up there? Am I supposed to remember everything? 我怎么知道她在讲台上说的哪些话是重要的呢? 所有东西我都得记吗?

vt. ① 被期望做……,应该……:We are not supposed to smoke here. 我们不应该在这里抽烟。

② 本应,本该(用于表示某事本应发生而没有发生):The new laws are supposed to prevent crime. 这些新法令本应起到防止犯罪的作用。

6. (Lines 15-16, Para. 3) When I try it people always smile and say, Do I detect an Irish brogue? 当我试着说美国口音时,人们总是微笑着说,我是不是听到爱尔兰土腔了?

vt. 发现;察觉(尤指不易察觉到的事物):Many forms of cancer can be cured if detected early. 如果发现得早,许多种癌症是可以治愈的。

【派生词】

detection n. [U]发现,察觉:the early detection of cancer 癌症的早期发现

detective n. [U]侦探,警探

detector n. [U]探测器:smoke detectors 烟雾报警器

detectable adj. 可察觉到的

7. (Lines 3-5, Para. 4) …because the Pilgrims were English themselves and the English were always the ones who persecuted everyone else, especially the Irish. 因为清教徒本身就是英国人,而英国人总是到处迫害别人,尤其是爱尔兰人

vt. (尤指因宗教、政治信仰不同而在一段时期中)迫害:Puritans left England to escape being persecuted. 为躲避迫害,清教徒离开了英国。

【派生词】

persecution n. [C, U]the persecution of writers who criticize the government 对批评政府的作家的迫害

8. (Lines 3-7, Para. 6) Then the professor tells us ideas don't drop fully formed from the skies, that the Pilgrims were, in the long run, children of the Reformation with an accompanying world-view and their attitudes to children were so informed. 接着,教授告诉我们,观念并不是从天而降的现成品。从长远来看,清教徒是宗教改革运动的产物,他们继承了宗教改革运动的世界观,也由此形成了他们对孩子的态度。

【结构分析】 原句比较长,译成汉语要用短句。children of the Reformation是比喻的说法。 ideas don't drop fully formed from the skies这句意为观念是有其前例和历史的,不是一下凭空蹦出来的,而是从一些相关的观念演变来的。with an accompanying world-view 要用增词法翻译成单句。and their attitudes to children were so informed 这句是教授在提醒学生:历史文化背景是很重要的。其中so起到语法替换的作用,意为“(对孩子的态度)也是在宗教改革运动和当时的世界观的基础上形成的。”

【词汇难点】 accompanying adj. 陪伴的, 附随;

in the long run phr. n. 从长远来看,终究。

9. (Lines 5-7, Para. 8) If the professor talks and talks and the textbook is 700 pages I'll surely be lost. 如果教授不停地讲啊讲,而课本又有700页之多的话,到时候我肯定会不知所措的。

 be lost意为“被……弄糊涂”。此处指教授不停地讲,课本又很厚,作者觉得如果自己弄不清考试题会从哪里出的话,肯定会在考试时不知所措。

10. (Lines 3-7, Para. 9) I'd like to go to the university cafeteria or a Greenwich Village coffee shop and chat with the girl about the Pilgrims and their Puritan ways and how they frightened the life out of their children. 我愿意和她一起去学校的自助餐厅或是格林尼治村的咖啡馆,一块儿谈谈清教徒和他们极端拘谨的生活方式,谈谈他们是怎么把孩子吓破胆的。

 清教徒以其严苛著称,他们从小就教育孩子:好人上天堂,坏人下地狱。frightened the life out of their children 意为吓唬孩子们,让他们对下地狱感到害怕。

1. 【清教徒】 16世纪上半叶,欧洲开始了宗教改革运动。在当时的英国,由于英国国教的专横,宗教改革姗姗来迟,但英国教徒们还是受到了来自加尔文教义的影响。那些信奉加尔文教义、不满英国国教教义的人被称为清教徒。早期清教徒希望完全按照《圣经》的原则生活,顺服圣经的教导可说是他们的首要任务。而由于英国的宗教迫害,大部分清教徒都逃亡到了美国,所以人们说起清教徒,一般指的就是美国的清教徒。

2. 【宗教改革运动】 宗教改革运动是欧洲16世纪兴起的一次改革运动,以其反对教会的极端统治和压迫而闻名。其实质是资产阶级反对宗教对其发展的阻碍而发动的一场大规模反封建的社会政治运动。运动从罗马教廷出售赎罪券开始爆发,到英国国王亨利八世改革国教而达到高潮,在欧洲历史上产生了重大的影响,是欧洲资本主义发展的一个必然结果,也为其进一步发展奠定基础。

3. 【格林尼治村】 位于美国纽约市曼哈顿区。英国殖民统治期间为一村庄。1910年以后,不信奉英国国教的作家、艺术家、文人墨客、大学生等知识分子开始汇聚此地。20世纪80年代,这里建起了高级公寓,很多地段成为时髦街区。村内街道弯曲,建有老式房子、外国餐馆、古玩店、实验剧场、标新立异的夜总会。纽约大学也建在村中。

《回忆录》(节选)

由于我不是高中毕业生,而且有一份全职工作,所以他们只允许我选修两门课程:“文学概论”和“美国教育史”。我不知道为什么我非得了解文学。可是入学申请办公室的那位女士说,虽然我读过陀思妥耶夫斯基和梅尔维尔的小说,虽然一个没上过高中的人能读这些书的确令人敬佩,但这门课是必修课。她说由于我接受的欧洲教育不全面,“美国教育史”能使我具备广博的文化背景知识。

我乐得飘飘然了,第一件事就是去买所需要的课本,然后用纽约大学紫白相间的护封把它们套起来,这样地铁里的乘客都会用崇拜的目光看着我了。

我对大学课堂的所有了解都来自很久以前我在利默里克看的那些电影,现在我就坐在“美国教育史”的课堂上听玛克辛·格林教授在讲台上给我们讲美国的英国清教徒移民是如何教育他们的下一代的。我周围的同学全都在不停地记笔记。我真希望自己也知道记点儿什么。我怎么知道她在讲台上说的哪些话是重要的呢? 所有东西我都得记吗? 有些同学举手问问题,可我永远不能那么做,因为全班同学都会盯着我,不知道那个说话带口音的家伙究竟是谁。我可以尝试用美国口音说话,却没一次成功过。当我试着说美国口音时,人们总是微笑着说,我是不是听到爱尔兰土腔了?

教授说清教徒离开英国是为了逃避宗教迫害,这让我大惑不解,因为清教徒本身就是英国人,而英国人总是到处迫害别人,尤其是爱尔兰人。我真想举手告诉教授爱尔兰人几百年来在英国的统治下所遭受的痛苦,但我清楚班上的每个人都有高中文凭,只要我一开口,他们就会知道我和他们不一样。

其他同学都从容自信地举手发言。他们总是说:嗯,我认为……

总有一天我也会举手发言,说:嗯,我认为……可对清教徒和他们的教育问题,我还真不知道该如何认为。接着,教授告诉我们,观念并不是从天而降的现成品。从长远来看,清教徒是宗教改革运动的产物,他们继承了宗教改革运动的世界观,也由此形成了他们对孩子的态度。

教室里记笔记的沙沙声更响了,女生比男生更忙活。女生们不停地记,就好像从格林教授嘴里说出的每个字都很重要似的。

接下来我开始琢磨,为什么我要买这本厚厚的《美国教育史》,然后带着它坐地铁,让大家都羡慕我是个大学生呢? 我知道会有考试,有期中考试,有期末考试,可是考试题会从哪里出呢? 如果教授不停地讲啊讲,而课本又有700页之多的话,到时候我肯定会不知所措的。

班上有一些漂亮的女生,我想问问其中的一个是否知道应付七周后的期中考试我该掌握什么内容。我愿意和她一起去学校的自助餐厅或是格林尼治村的咖啡馆,一块儿谈谈清教徒和他们极端拘谨的生活方式,谈谈他们是怎么把孩子吓破胆的。我可以告诉那名女生我是如何读陀思妥耶夫斯基和梅尔维尔的小说的。说不定她会被我打动,继而爱上我,然后我们一起研读美国教育史。

1 Work in pairs. Read the book blurb about Tis: A Memoir and discuss the questions.

1. He might have had difficulties in continuing his education to qualify as a teacher because he hasn't received formal education before and then in finding work—perhaps he was treated as an outsider. He would probably face loneliness at first and might experience some culture embarrassment or culture shock in cross-culture communication.

2. It is undoubted to say that formal education is necessary for many jobs in modern society. People might mistake his lack of formal education for lack of intelligence or lack of experience. Some might think he had no training in anything or even that he was illiterate.

3. Firstly, a schoolteacher needs degree so he must have studied for a degree; and then trained as a teacher, probably part-time.

4. “Survival” suggests that he made any effort to overcome difficulties in the new situation and it was not an easy life.

5. Facts: This book comes after Angela's Ashes, Frank McCourt's second volume of memoirs; it tells the story of his American journey. It follows his progress as an immigrant.

Opinions: He is a brilliant storyteller and schoolteacher; this is a vivid story about survival.

Reading and understanding

3 Answer the questions.

1. (Para. 1) Because the writer has acquired some literature knowledge and he's even read Dostoyevsky (a Russian novelist) and Melville (an American writer) whose novels are lengthy and are hard for students.

2. (Para. 3) The writer cannot distinguish the most important points out of all the Professor's sayings and he is also very conscious of his Irish accent. Therefore, He feels uncertain. He lacks confidence and seems insecure. He doesn't know what kind of notes to write or what he's supposed to remember.

3. (Para. 3) So that he can sound like the other students, like Americans, and avoid being teased.

4. (Para. 4) No, the writer is puzzled because he holds a different view that the Pilgrims left England to escape religious persecution. His view is that the English persecuted the Irish and other people, so he wonders why the English would escape from persecution. He wants to tell the professor about the Irish suffering.

5. (Para. 8) He's not confident at the moment about his success. He's worried about the exams because he doesn't know where the questions will come from. The professor talks a lot and the textbook is thick and he is unable to identify the most important points.

Dealing with unfamiliar words

4 Replace the underlined words with the correct form of the words in the box.

1. detect 2. admirable 3. subways 4. inadequate 5. scribbling

6. persecution

5 Answer the questions about the expressions.

1. (a) 高兴 2. (a) 要仔细推敲 3. (a) 从长远看 4. (b) 把某人吓得要命

Reading and interpreting

6 Work in pairs. Look at the sentences from the extract and answer the questions.

1. The writer may use exaggeration. Perhaps the woman in the admissions office did not actually say that his education was “inadequate”, but her words and attitude made him feel like this. The woman may have a point, if all the American students have a high school diploma and the writer doesn't have one, then he is not qualified enough (and in a way he is lucky to have this chance of university education).

2. Because he has received the inadequate education and he has no experience of note-taking, he is not sure what to write and what sort of notes to take. He feels puzzled without any guidance or directions.

3. No, he feels different because of his Irish accent and background.

4. No. The writer in the text uses “could” which indicates that he is dreaming (or fantasizing) about a romance. He must feel like a stranger, a bit lonely and lost. He'd like to share what he knows with someone, but no one could give a fair hearing in return.

Developing critical thinking

7 Work in pairs and discuss the questions.

1. I felt curious / excited / interested / confident / anxious / shy / sad when I first started college.

2. I feel interested / enthusiastic / very sleepy / bored / unsure / confident during lectures.

3. I prefer to ask questions after the lecture because teachers have enough time to explain, but I think it is more effective to ask questions during the lecture though the teaching process may be interrupted.

4.·Some professors in America, Britain etc are open-minded and they welcome disagreements, provided students give reasons or evidence for their comments, that is, they want students to think for themselves, which is bound to include disagreement.

·Often students think that professors prefer agreement, when in fact professors know that there is a range of views and hope that students will learn about a wider range of views. Some students in China may think that they need to know a lot before they can disagree, and since they are students now, they don't know enough yet to disagree with professors, who surely know more. This could be a problem if it curtails discussion.

5. Some aspects may be similar, such as lectures, courses, university clubs and associations, but many features of daily life will be somewhat different such as food, halls of residence, student employment, sports and social activities, and performance evaluation standards. Some approaches to learning and teaching may also be different.

Talking point

1 Work in pairs. Read Starting out at college and discuss the questions.

To Mary from Oxford

Try joining some student societies, clubs and associations (but only ones you are actually interested in), talk to your classmates during breaks and before / after class, talk to others in your hall of residence, share your ideas and unforgettable experiences with your partners, get ready to help others all the time. This may seem hard at first, but don't worry, you'll soon make friends if you are friendly to others.

To Tony from Manchester

You'd better have confidence first and then get a cookbook and learn to cook a few basic dishes. Ask someone to show you how to cook a dish or two (buy the ingredients for them and share the meal).

To John from London

Talk to the teacher and ask for advice and see if you can find any details about the format and style of the exam. Exchange the ideas with other students in your class and refine the valuable information and suggestions. Maybe you can get some sample exam papers from last year from the library or from other students.

To Katy from Stirling

Phone home, send emails or write letters. Keep busy with studies, participate in lots of social activities and try to make friends.

To Jo from Exeter

Keep track of your spending by writing down major expenses. Some banks give students personal advice and leaflets with guidance about financial management. If you find you are in difficulty, the Students' Union in British universities will offer advice and support.

To Malcolm from Birmingham

Don't worry. It seems that you are making a fuss. If you have won a place at university, you have already passed competitive exams and selection procedures. So you are definitely superior and intelligent enough. Don't compare yourself with others. You need to believe in yourself and be yourself.

To Callum from Belfast

Students may have to learn to study more independently at university and of course to study in more depth. Many students study completely different subjects and disciplines compared to what they learnt at school. Universities also provide an environment (seminars, lectures, forums) for you to read about and discuss topics widely. In order to broaden your personal horizon and achieve all-round development, you can also join a lot of social, sports and leisure activities.

2 Work in pairs. Choose the best advice about beating homesickness.

Call home once a day.

It will obviously cost a lot of money if your home is far away from the school. But it may be a good idea if you can afford it.

Have familiar things around you, such as photos of your family and friends.

This is a good idea and easy to arrange.

Cook your favorite food.

This is also a good suggestion, but Chinese students hardly can do so because there is no kitchen in their dorm. Otherwise buy some favourite food.

Take lots of exercise, especially in the first few weeks.

This is a useful and practical idea if you can make time, because it distracts your attention from homesickness.

Join lots of clubs and societies.

It is a good idea to join some clubs and societies to make friends. But be careful: Don't join too many, because you will have limited time on study and preparation for the exams. Only join the ones you are interested in.

Check you know everyone in the rooms near yours. If you don't, knock on the door and introduce yourself.

This is a good way to make friends and learn to be sociable and independent.

Go shopping.

This is a good idea, especially for the girls. But it depends on whether you have time and money to spare. It also depends on whether you like shopping or not.

Language in use

with / without

1 Match the sentences with the uses of with / without.

1. a 2. b 3. a 4. c 5. c 6. d

2 Rewrite the sentences using with / without.

1. With his head moving from side to side, her tutor spills his coffee into the saucer.

2. “Splendid,” he says, without waiting for an answer.

3. Frank McCourt speaks in class with an Irish accent.

4. He plans to go on the subway with the books covered in purple and white NYU jackets.

5. He's only allowed to take two courses without being told why.

6. He would like to ask a question without raising his hand.

collocations

3 Read the explanations of the words and expressions. Answer the questions.

1. (a) The writer uses exaggeration to indicate the room is very small.

(b) You would climb into bed if you are so tired and exhausted that it feels like a huge effort.

(c) You would probably need to bend over, and crawl through the hole.

2. (a) You have accidentally knocked over a cup / mug and the coffee has gone (uncontrolled) all over the desk.

(b) The box containing toys is too full so some toys are falling out onto the carpet, or the box has been tipped over so most of the toys have fallen out of the box.

(c) Many people would be leaving the bars and restaurants all at once, probably because they were closing for the emergency.

3. (a) When they are good at playing a musical instrument and want to play and cooperate with others.

(b) You have lost your job and become unemployed without money to make a living.

(c) You do the same activity as most other people are doing.

4. (a) The writer suddenly starts crying.

(b) Flowers, when they emerge from buds.

(c) Use direct means to put out the flames immediately, or call the emergency services quickly.

5. (a) A clean license refers to a driving license, which means that you have been driving safely or at least you have no penalty points on the license. A person gets such points as a punishment after breaking the law on the roads, eg speeding or causing an accident and the license then has a note on it and the police have a record so the license isn't clean any more.

(b) You avoid using swear words, dirty words or other examples of bad language.

(c) Metaphorical use and it means something is working properly, for example, a car might have a clean bill of health, after a check or test that it is working properly.

6. (a) This phrase is usually used to modify a person who behaves in a relaxed, calm manner with others and is happy to accept things without getting worried or angry, and also maintain the harmonious relation with the people around him.

(b) A person who is easy on the eye is pleasant to look at in appearance and in the way they dress.

(c) When something is easier said than done, it is easy to talk about, but difficult to achieve and carry out.

(d) “Take it easy” usually means either of two things: You should rest and not do things that will make you tired, or you should keep calm, being less worried or angry.

4 Complete the sentences using the collocations in Activity 3.

1. spill out of 2. burst into tears 3. clean language 4. easier

5. climb through 6. spilt 7. join in 8. burst into bloom

9. clean license 10. easy on the eye

5 Translate the sentences into Chinese.

1. 等我们终于找到8号房间的时候,妈妈已经涨红了脸,累得上气不接下气。我打开门锁,我们都走了进去。

2. 她给我留下了深刻的印象,我觉得自己太无知了,甚至不配跟她呼吸同样的空气。

3. 我不知道为什么我非得了解文学。可是招生办公室的那位女士说,虽然我读过陀思妥耶夫斯基和梅尔维尔的小说,虽然一个没上过高中的人能读这些书的确令人敬佩,但这门课是必修课。

4. 我乐得飘飘然了,第一件事就是去买所需要的课本,然后用纽约大学紫白相间的护封把它们套起来,这样地铁里的乘客都会用崇拜的目光看着我了。

5. 接着,教授告诉我们,观念并不是从天而降的现成品。从长远来看,清教徒是宗教改革运动的产物,他们继承了宗教改革运动的世界观,也由此形成了他们对孩子的态度。

6 Translate the sentences into English.

1. Their introduction of Amateur Dramatics impressed Sophie so much that she signed up for it.

2. Online education provides those who work full time with opportunities to receive further education in their spare time.

3. When he first arrived at university, he was not sure whether he was supposed to scribble down every word out of the teacher's mouth.

4. No one detects his despair well hidden behind his smile.

5. Some students are easy about talking with strangers, while some others find it hard to do so.

Settling down at college around the world 《适应校园生活——来自世界各地的访谈》记录了三个不同国家的大学新生在学习和社交等方面适应校园生活、学会自我管理的经历。

【思考】 你用了多长时间来适应大学生活?

1. (Line 1, Para. 2) But then I realized I was missing out on so many other things at university. 可后来我意识到我错过了大学里许多其他活动。

phr. v. (on)错过(机会):She married young and felt she was missing out on life. 她年纪轻轻就结婚了,因而感到错过了享受生活的机会。

【固定搭配】

miss sb / sth out 不包括,漏掉:Make sure you don't miss any details out. 你要确保不漏掉任何细节。

2. (Line 5, Para. 2) I don't know why she was bothering with university! 我真不知道她干嘛还要费工夫上大学!

phr. v. 为……操心,为……费心:He has no time to bother with trifles. 他没有时间为小事而担忧。

【固定搭配】

sorry to bother you: [口]对不起打扰您一下

3. (Lines 3-4, Para. 5) The money arrives all in one go, so I felt pretty rich at the start of term. 每学期的钱是一次性汇来的,因此学期开始时我总觉得手头相当宽裕。

adv. 一下子(一举, 一次, 一气):He drank a pint of milk in one go. 他一口气喝了一品脱牛奶。

1. 【里昂】 法国东南部大城市。历史上曾为西方丝织业中心,现为工业基地之一,化学纤维的主要产地;机械、电子、重型汽车、计算机等工业在法国也占有一定地位。同时著名的里昂足球俱乐部就位于该市。

2. 【瓜达拉哈拉】 瓜达拉哈拉市位于墨西哥哈利斯哥州中部,是哈利斯哥州首府,城市居民164万,是该国仅次于首都墨西哥城的第二大城市和中西部商业金融中心,有3所大学、50多座教堂和许多博物馆。

适应校园生活——来自世界各地的访谈

塔尼娅·扎茹茨卡娅 莫斯科,俄罗斯

去年的这个时候,我对新生活感到很紧张。我一个朋友也没有,这是我第一次离开家。一开始,我一天到晚都在忙功课:上课,并且学习到深夜。

可后来我意识到我错过了大学里许多其他活动。一天,跟我住同一幢宿舍楼的一个女孩儿邀请全楼的人去参加一个晚宴。我不知道她在哪儿买到的那些吃的,也不清楚她怎么会有足够的钱。而且她穿得像个模特儿。我真不知道她干嘛还要费工夫上大学!现在我结识了许多有趣的人,努力学习的同时也享受生活。

米古尔·方斯卡 瓜达拉哈拉,墨西哥

刚上大学的时候,我尽量把教授们在课堂上说的每一句话都记下来。结果我光忙着记笔记,都顾不上听课了。我现在学的是化学,现在学的东西似乎都比我们在中学里学的复杂。不过我意识到,在大学里,你应该多听、多思考。现在,我已经弄清新知识和过去所学知识之间的差别了。

弗兰辛·博内 里昂,法国

我刚来时,大学对我来说似乎很大,也很不友好。一开始,我觉得很难适应缺乏指导的自由生活。上中学的时候,我已经习惯了晚上做家庭作业。

如何支配每月的生活费也让我感到很头疼。你得买食品、书、公交车票、衣服和其他所有东西,这和小时候在家花零花钱可不一样。每学期的钱是一次性汇来的,因此学期开始时我总觉得手头相当宽裕。然后就大手大脚地花钱,搞到后来每天只能吃一个三明治!

现在我意识到家长或老师不再有照顾我的责任了。第一次,我要为自己的生活负责了……可我却不知道该怎么办!

1 Read the passage and answer the questions.

1. Tanya worked all the time, went to lectures and studied late into the night. Miguel tried to write notes about everything the professors said in their lectures. Francine found the freedom, lack of guidance and managing allowance difficult.

2. Tanya got to know lots of interesting people and had a social life. Miguel learnt to listen and think more. Francine realized that she was responsible for her own life.

3. Tanya realized the need to change when she was invited to a party. Miguel suddenly realized that he needed to change. Francine spent too much money and finally could only afford to eat a sandwich once a day. From that experience, she gained an understanding of her responsibility.

4. It is not clear for Tanya. We don't know if she balanced her study and social life at home. Miguel found university study more complicated than learning at school. For Francine, she has to look after herself in the university, but it was her parents who looked after her at home and teachers guided all her learning at school.

5. Although Francine now realizes she has the freedom and responsibility to take care of herself, she does not know how to spend her money reasonably and cope with her study problems, so she still has problems with looking after herself.

6. It seems that Miguel has solved his problem. He does not mention any social difficulties.

2 Work in pairs and discuss the questions.

1. Like most new students, I felt a bit nervous about making friends (or being away from home, about money, studies, accommodation, food, loneliness etc), because I did not know anyone and I was far from home. Besides, I felt nervous about my study because I cannot adapt to the university education immediately.

2. The main differences were that I had to take care of myself, plan my studies at college.

3. I have to study hard, but I try to have a balance between study and social life.

4. I think so, it seems to me that the way of studying at college is to be more independent. You can choose the course you like and the professors you admire.

5. Yes, I tend to spend my money too quickly at the beginning of the month and usually at last can only afford to eat a hamburger once a day, so I need to make a budget so that I won't starve towards the end of the month.

6. I have learnt to enrich my university life, use my money wisely and to study more independently.

Guided writing

2 Think about learning to live at college in China and write a short passage.

·Describe your feelings or lifestyle in the past.

Four months ago I was preparing for my university entrance exam. Although I studied hard, I was very anxious, worried and nervous. But my parents looked after me at home.

·Give more information about your feelings or lifestyle when you first arrived at college.

When I first arrived at college, I missed my family and my school friends, but I was curious about my university campus and felt excited to receive college education.

·Describe how something changed.

But then I understood that I had to take care of myself, make friends in a new place, and try to adapt to the new environment.

·Describe why the change happened.

One day a group of friends suggested we should hold a dinner party in our department.

·Describe how life is today.

I joined in some clubs and associations and now I have lots of new friends and we have played a couple of matches. We study together and my university life is not lonely anymore. Moreover, I have got to know how to study independently at university.