rise,grow,increase,climb,go up,soar,jump,gain,surge,rocket,shoot up,spiral
其中spiral表示急剧增加，但常常用来消极或负面的意思。如：Incomes of this company continue to spiral downwards. 这家公司的收入仍然快速下降。surge,rocket,shoot up，jump,soar 都表示数量等突然而急剧的上升。
fall,decline,decrease,drop,retard,sink,come down,cut down
be amount to,reach,add up to,number,run to,total,equal
The company’s crew number rises to 150.
The company’s income decreases by 3％.
The factory has a number of 29 new machines.
The factory’s first season export remains at 50 000 dollars.
汉语中我们常说说 A 是B 的 X 倍，英语对应的说法为，A is X times as ... as B. 比如：今年公司的收入是去年的两倍。英语为：The company’s income of this year is two times as much as that of last year. 当要表达 A比B大X倍意思的时候，则不能译为 A is X times as large as B，应该译为 A is X times bigger（或其他形容词比较级）than B 或者译为A is(X+1) times as much as B. 如：今年公司的收入比去年多两倍，实际表示的意思为今年公司的收入是去年的三倍。译成英语则为，The company’s income of this year is three (2+1) times as much as that of last year.
1）名词+ n times + 名词（n为数字）
例如：This building is two times the height of that one.
2.名词+ n times + 形容词比较级+than+名词
例如：This bridge is three times longer than that one.
3.名词+ n times + what 引导从句
例如：This city is now two times what it was 30 years ago.
例如：Compared with the rice production in 1990,the production in 1995 doubled,the production in 2000 tripled and the production in 2008 quadrupled.
表示五倍及以上倍数的数字可以用 five times,six times,seven times等来表示。
基本的分数表达如：1/5 one fifth,3/7 three sevenths 等在此不作过多表述。碰到“3 times less than”这类表达时，可以考虑将其译成分数。
A is n times less than B. A比B小 (n-1)/n。
A is three times less than B. A比B小三分之二。
例如，The export income of this year is five times less than that of last year.
今年的销售额飙升到230万美元，比去年翻了一番。这句可以翻译为：Compared with last year’s sale,this year’s doubled and soars to 2.3 million dollars. 这里飙升可以用soar，也可以用surge,jump，“到”用介词to来表示；比去年翻了一番，即是去年的两倍，可以用double (v.)，或者two times as.
再如：这个月公司的收入急剧增加，较去年同期增加了三倍，达到数百万美元。翻译为：Compared with this time last year,the company’s income dramatically increases by three times this month,amounting to millions of dollars. 这里急剧用作副词修饰“增加”，可以用 dramatically,sharply，或considerably来表示；“增加了”用 increase by来表示，增加还可以rise,grow,climb,go up,gain等来表示；“达到”用amount to,reach,add up to,number,run to等来表示；比去年同期增加了三倍，说明是去年同期的四倍，可以用increase by three times,或者four times 加从句：The company’s income is four times what it was last time this year,it increases dramatically,amounts to millions of dollars；“数百万”为笼统数字，用millions of 来表示，在口译时候，难免会遇到一些笼统的数字表述。这类数字的表达要熟记。如：
几个 some,a few,several,a number of,
十几个 more than a dozen,over a dozen,no more than twenty
几十个 dozens of
好几百个 hundreds of
成千上万 thousands of
几十万 hundreds of thousands of
数以百万 millions of
亿万 hundreds of millions of
几十年 decades of
八十好几 over eighty
太阳能热水器 solar water heater
光伏发电 photovoltaic generation
金融危机 financial crisis
非化石能源 non-fossil energy
能效 energy efficiency
国际能源署 International Energy Agency
低耗能汽车 low energy consumption vehicle
节能住宅 energy saving house
环保家具 environment-friendly furniture
节约用水 economize on water
垃圾分类收集 collection of classified/ sorted garbage/rubbish
1. 十分之一的中国家庭用上了太阳能，翻译为：One in 10 families in China already use solar energy. 这里出现最基本的分数，十分之一的家庭，可以翻译为 one tenth of families,或者1 in 10 families；太阳能为solar energy.
2. 中国在新增4万亿元（约合4 000亿英镑）的经济刺激方案中，应对气候变化相关投资达15％。翻译为：In the latest stimulus package worth 400 billion pound,15％ was invested in addressing climate change. 这里新增为最新、最近之意，翻译为：the latest；4 000亿英镑中的4 000亿，为400 billion；刺激方案为stimulus package，方案解释为一揽子计划；应对气候变化，翻译为：address the climate change.
3. 中国就有望在2006至2010年间减少二氧化碳排放15亿吨。翻译为：That would mean a reduction in CO2 emissions of 1.5 billion tons in five years by 2010. 这里，中国有望，意译为 That would mean (China has...)；2006至2010年间也没有直译为between the year 2006 and 2010，而是用in five years by 2010来转译；二氧化碳排放翻译为CO2 emissions,CO2 读成carbon dioxide；减少，可以用名词来代替动词，可以用reduction,cut,drop,decline,decrease等来表示。
4. 在今年9月召开的联合国气候变化峰会上，胡锦涛主席宣布中国将进一步采取应对气候变化的措施。翻译为：At the UN Climate Change Summit last September,President Hu Jintao stated that China would take even further steps to counter climate change. 联合国气候变化峰会为专有名词为：UN Climate Change Summit；进一步采取……措施，是词组搭配，为：take further steps；其他关于气候的名词有：
碳减排 carbon emission reduction
京都议定书 Kyoto Protocol
污水处理 sewage treatment
可再生能源 renewable energy
可持续发展 sustainable development
自然保护区 nature reserve
5. 单位GDP二氧化碳排放下降40-45％，翻译为：bringing down CO2 per unit of GDP by 40-45％。单位GDP为 per unit of GDP；下降，可以用词组bring down sth. 来表示，介词用by.
6. 非化石能源比重达到15％，翻译为：increasing the ratio of non-fossil energy to 15％。比重为ratio；达到可用介词to 表示。
7. 森林面积比2005年增加4 000万公顷，这个面积相当于英国领土的1.5倍。翻译为：
expanding the forest coverage by 40 million hectares,which is equivalent one and a half the size of the United Kingdom. 这里增加用的是expand，还可以用enlarge,increase,raise等，后面跟的介词是by；相当于英国领土的1.5倍，1.5倍是one and half times，不要忘记size这个词，因为这里它指的是领土面积。
8. 1990至2005年间，中国单位GDP能耗下降了47％，预计2005至2010年将再下降20％。翻译为：Between 1990 and 2005,the per unit GDP energy consumption came down by 47％ and between 2005 and 2010 it will again come down by 20％. 能耗，即能源消耗，为energy consumption；这里下降用come down，或者 用fall,decline 等，介词用by.
9. 国际能源署预测，如果中国实现了2020年目标，届时中国一年即可减排10亿吨二氧化碳。翻译为：According to the International Energy Agency,if China fulfils its target for 2020,it will have reduced its emissions of CO2 by 1 billion tons. 届时……句式用将来完成时来表示；减排中的“减”，用动词reduce，或者lower,bring down,decrease，介词用by. 国际能源署为International Energy Agency，其他常见的国际组织：
国际货币基金组织 IMF (International Monetary Fund)
联合国教科文组织 UNESCO (United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization)
石油输出国组织（欧佩克） OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries)
亚太经济合作组织 APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation)
联合国贸易与发展会议 UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development)
10. 中国人均GDP刚过3 000美元，分别是英国、美国的五分之一、二十分之一，在世界排名第104位，排在牙买加和纳米比亚之后。翻译为：China’s per capita GDP has just passed 3 000 US dollars. UK and US are 15 to 20 times that of China. China is behind Jamaica and Namibia. 这里的分数1/15、1/20没有直译成relatively one fifteenth and one twentieth of UK and US，而是将英国、美国放在前面，将分数变成倍数来进行翻译，变成15 to 20 times that of China，这也是翻译中的一个数字转换技巧。
1. If you’d put your money into gold at the lows about 10 years ago,you’d have made a nearly 400％ return.
2. About 88 900 local people would have to make way for $3.68 billion Xiangjiaba project,to be built on the lower reaches of the Jianshajiang River,a main tributary of Yangtze River.
3. At the peak of the gold mania in 1979-1980,gold prices rose so far that the backing exceeded 100％.
4. The bank’s analysts say global equity markets will naturally go through a 10％ or 20％ correction over two or three months,following the 79.9％ rally over the last 13 months through to April.
5. For instance,from the April high to May 6 low,Japan is off 4.2％,the U.S. 7.6％,and Europe 9.5％.
6. The group cropped RMB 13.935 billion as its total sales volume,with RMB 890 million of profit and US$ 650 million of foreign currency earnings.
7. On average,they expect the economy to grow at a pace below 3％ through the second quarter of 2011,so slow that they anticipate the unemployment rate,now at 9.5％,will drop to only 8.6％ by the end of 2011.
8. After falling to $1 175 a troy ounce Tuesday,a 7％ drop from the June high,gold prices rebounded modestly through the rest of the week to close at $1 187.70.
9. After rebounding from recession in late 2001 and early 2002,the economy had a 12-month stretch in which it grew at a paltry 1.5％ annual rate,sparking fears of a double-dip recession.
10. And two thirds of the mothers among the 2 000 women in the survey said they wanted to keep working in some way after having children.
4. 2008年全年水资源总量27 127亿立方米，比上年增加7.4％；人均水资源2 048立方米，增加6.9％。
7. 2008年年末城市污水处理厂日处理能力达8 295万立方米，比上年末增长16.1％；城市污水处理率达到65.3％，提高2.4个百分点。
9. 2008年全年粮食产量52 850万吨，比上年增加2 690万吨，增产5.4％。其中，夏粮产量12 041万吨，增产2.6％。
1. 过去一年，面对国际金融危机的严重冲击，中国政府果断决策、及时部署，实施了保持经济平稳较快发展的一揽子计划，在较短时间里实现了经济回升向好。国内需求在中国经济增长中发挥了主导作用。去年中国国内生产总值增长8.7％，其中内需扩大贡献了12.6个百分点，弥补了因外需萎缩而减少3.9个百分点的影响。在内需中，投资需求贡献了8个百分点，消费需求贡献了4.6个百分点，表现出经济自主增长的强劲动力。同时，中国经济增长是开放的。去年中国货物进口10 056亿美元，贸易顺差比上年减少了近1 000亿美元，是世界第二大进口国和全球最大的新兴市场。中国国内生产总值增量达到3 800亿美元，为世界经济复苏作出了积极贡献。为有效应对危机，我们大规模增加财政公共支出并实行结构性减税。2009年新增公共投资达7 200多亿元，加上减税5 000多亿元，相当于国内生产总值的约3.6％，既刺激了市场需求，促进了经济增长；又减轻了企业负担，增强了经济活力。中国的财政赤字则保持在不超过国内生产总值3％的合理范围以内。我们把民生工程作为公共投资的重点。在总额4万亿元的两年投资计划中，用于改善民生的投入占政府投入的50％以上，带动了居民消费。同时，大幅度增加社会保障投入，把基本医疗卫生制度作为公共产品向全社会提供，努力在13亿人口中推进“全民基本医保”。我们在促进增长中不放松调整结构，积极发展新能源、节能环保等战略性新兴产业，加快淘汰高耗能、高排放的落后产能，去年淘汰单机在10万千瓦以下的小火电机组达2 600万千瓦。中国应对国际金融危机取得的成效，是政府正确决策的结果，更是人民勤奋工作的结果。正是中国人民的坚韧不拔，尤其是广大劳动者的辛勤努力，推动了中国经济平稳较快发展。
社会事业加快发展，人民生活进一步改善。城镇新增就业1 113万人；城镇居民人均可支配收入15 781元，农村居民人均纯收入4 761元，实际增长8.4％和8％。毫不放松地加强“三农”工作。全年中央财政用于“三农”的投入5 955亿元，比上年增加1637 亿元，增长37.9％，其中粮食直补、农资综合补贴、良种补贴、农机具购置补贴资金达1 030亿元，比上年增长一倍。三次较大幅度提高粮食最低收购价，提价幅度超过20％。实施主要农产品临时收储政策。加强耕地保护和农田水利建设，提高农业综合生产能力。扶持生猪、油料、奶业发展。这些政策措施在保护和调动农民积极性、保障重要农产品供给、增加农民收入方面发挥了重要作用，为稳定经济社会发展全局提供了有力支撑。
3. Canada has observed China’s remarkable rise over the course of a longstanding relationship. In the mid-nineteenth century,Chinese laborers were integral to the most important nation-building exercise in Canadian history—the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway. And over the last hundred years some one million Chinese have immigrated to Canada.
Ladies and gentlemen,even in these few examples,we see there is much shared history between Canada and China,history that has helped to shape both our countries. So it is not surprising that as China has opened up our economic ties have become extensive and expanding. Since 2005 alone,two-way merchandise trade between our countries has grown steadily each year by an average of more than 14 per cent. During this period,Canadian exports to China have grown by more than 3 billion dollars. Our total two-way trade is now valued at over 53 billion dollars. China is Canada’s second largest merchandise trading partner and our third largest export market.
To help continue growing this relationship,our government has recently dedicated over a billion dollars into trade infrastructure on our Pacific coast. What we call the Asia-Pacific Gateway is an integrated system of ports,airports,road and rail connections that link Asia deep into the heart of the North American marketplace. In fact,the west coast ports in Vancouver and Prince Rupert are two and three days closer than their American competitors to key Asian ports like Shanghai.
Canada is also increasingly being seen by Chinese business leaders as a natural destination for investment. We are one of the best-positioned among the developed economies for a strong recovery. We have falling tax rates,a low debt-to-GDP ratio,one of the most welcoming environments for foreign investment in the world and the resources necessary to meet China’s ever-growing needs.
One area where Canada and China share mutually beneficial objectives is,of course,in the field of energy. Because there can be no mistake,to continue fueling its growth into the future China will need stable sources of power. And Canada is an emerging energy superpower,a major supplier of every type of energy,seventh in the world in crude oil producer—with the second largest proven reserves—third in natural gas production and the largest producer of uranium. Canada also has the resources and know-how necessary to adapt technology to a cleaner,greener,less carbon-intensive energy future.
4. Q:I have two questions about Google. First,has the Chinese Government begun the talk with Google on the issue of internet censorship? Second,the US Government expressed their concerns over the hacking against Google which is possibly from China. Do you have any response to that?
A:As for hacking,like in other countries,it poses a severe threat to China’s information network. It’s fair to say that China is the biggest victim of hacking. In China,eight out of ten computers connected with internet are once hijacked by hackers. According to the statistics from the Chinese Internet Association,in 2008,the number of computers in the mainland suffered hacking from abroad grew by 148％ over the same period of the previous year. On July 17,2007,the website of National Satellite Meteorological Center affiliated with China Meteorological Administration was hacked. The latest example is,on January 12,2010,Baidu,a search engine which takes the largest market share in the mainland suffered the most serious hacking since its founding. That’s why the Chinese Government firmly opposes and prohibits hacking according to law.
Q:It is reported that recently Japanese Diet will discuss a new act on the Okinotori Reef. How do you comment on that?
A:It is clearly stipulated in paragraph 3 of Article 121 in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that “Rocks which cannot sustain human habitation or economic life of their own shall have no exclusive economic zone or continental shelf”. The area of Okinotori Reef at high tide is less than 10 m2. Obviously,it is a rock of this kind and shall have no exclusive economic zone or continental shelf. The artificial facilities on it can not change its legal status. Japan’s attempt to claim over large sea areas based on the reef contravenes the international law and seriously undermines the overall interests of the international community. It is legally untenable.
Q:I have a follow-up question on Haiti. Are the Chinese rescuers still in Haiti or have they come back to China with the dead bodies of the eight Chinese victims? It is reported that the local people are concerned that the Chinese rescuers are only interested in rescuing the Chinese citizens. I want to know if the Chinese rescuers are still operating in Haiti.
A:The allegation that Chinese rescuers only rescue Chinese nationals is totally false and out
of ulterior motives. Immediately after the Haitian earthquake,Chinese rescue workers set off for Haiti and began the challenging relief operation. They have not only found the bodies of the eight Chinese victims,but also those of UN officials in Haiti and many others. Medical staff of the Chinese rescue team has set up medical posts in Haiti and have treated more than 200 local people. This number is still growing. The efforts of the Chinese team are well-received by the local people. Their acts are selfless and brook no accusation. If they are accused of going to Haiti out of ulterior motives,this accusation itself should be denounced.
China Brand Show 中国品牌展
Guangzhou Fair 广交会
trading partner 贸易伙伴
China-US Strategic ＆ Economic Dialog 中美战略与经济对话
trade protectionism 贸易保护主义
Today,we gather here to celebrate the grand opening of China Brand Show 2009 and the Press Conference of the 106th Session of the Guangzhou Fair. On behalf of the Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China (MOFCOM),I would like to extend a warm welcome to all the guests and friends present today.
Thanks to the great support of US friends from all corners of the society and the active participation of Chinese enterprises,China Brand Show has been successfully held for 6 consecutive sessions and has become an important window for showcasing Chinese export commodities to US consumers. This year’s show is co-sponsored by MOFCOM and the people’s governments of Guangdong and Zhejiang Provinces. Many premium products have been selected from across China,especially from Guangdong and Zhejiang,for this Show. I believe those products will be well received here in the US and North America. The Guangzhou Fair,with the 106th session coming up from October 15th to November 4th in Guangzhou,is China’s flagship international trade show with the longest history,the largest scale,the most complete offerings of commodities,the highest turnout of participants,and the most fruitful results. For this session,the sponsors are assembling more than 20 000 enterprises with 150 000 varieties of exhibits and are expected to attract approximately 200 000 overseas buyers. We cordially invite buyers from the US to source at the Guangzhou Fair,and look forward to the display of US products which meet the needs of the Chinese market. I am sure that US business people will gain new business opportunities at the Fair.
China and the US are each other’s second largest trading partner. We share wide-ranging common interests and great promises for cooperation. At this critical juncture when the world economy is bouncing back from crisis to recovery,China and the US have taken proactive measures,particularly availing the occasion of the just concluded first China-US Strategic ＆ Economic Dialog (S＆ED),to send another bracing message of taking joint actions for tiding over the difficulties. Such measures play a positive role in helping the two countries and the world economy out of the current economic downturn. In its response to the crisis,the Chinese government will consistently pursue the opening-up strategy of mutual benefits and win-win,maintain a level playing field,resist trade protectionism with actions,and join other countries in promoting global trade recovery and growth. A more open,dynamic Chinese economy will bring about tremendous development opportunities for the entire world including the US. China-US trade and commercial relations will surely prosper at a new starting point.
extreme weather 极端气候
evaluation result 考核结果
clean development projects 清洁能源项目
beyond the reach 不可及
China is a huge country with a population of 1.3 billion. It has diverse climatic conditions and a fragile environment. The effect of climate change is a very real threat which we face everyday.
According to Chinese scientists,the average temperature in China has risen by 1.1 degrees centigrade in the last 5 decades. It is higher than the reported global average. We are seeing more frequent bouts of extreme weather in many parts of the country. Last spring,for example,the most severe drought in 50 years hit northern China affecting the livelihood of 4 million people.
Environmental damage and climate change is a reality for us. Out of the world’s most polluted 20 cities,half are in China. 70％ of Chinese rivers are polluted to some degree. China has become the largest carbon emitter of the world.
China set forward a voluntary reduction program for 2006 to 2010 period,including 20％ reduction in energy intensity per unit of GDP.
Last month,the evaluation result for 2008 was released on the web for all to access. Out of 31 provinces and regions,26 fulfilled emission reduction targets. One can’t underscore enough the importance of having such transparency as it places great pressure on those who are not meeting the target.
For example,we have achieved cutting down the average consumption of coal per unit of power by 20％,by demolishing the high-polluting and inefficient power plants. But it led to the loss of 400 000 jobs.
Low-carbon and energy conservation have become new growth sectors in China. Many British companies are actively involved in clean development projects in China. In the first 9 months of this year,clean energy contributed a third of China’s newly added power capacity.
Now,let me ask you all a question:In which year in history do you think Britain was at the same income level China now is at? According to British economist Angus Maddison,the answer is the year 1913.
In per capita GDP terms,China only ranks at 104th place in the world. It might be a surprise to some of you that China has 135 million people living under one dollar a day. Sometimes even the most basic things that we take for granted,like water,are beyond the reach of some Chinese people.
Now let’s come back to the point about China being the world’s biggest CO2 emitter. If you look at the figures in per capita terms,an average Chinese person’s emission is 4.6 tons. An average American emits 20 tons,in the yellow colour and Britain 10 tons in the blue colour. You can hardly call China energy greedy,can you?
Yet,according to an FT survey,63％ of Americans believe that China is not doing enough and that it should undertake more emission reduction. It feels like a person taking 4 pieces of bread asking the person who got the first piece of bread to go on diet.
Between 1750 and 2005,developed countries accounted for 80％ of the world’s CO2 emissions. Even today,with only 20％ of the world’s population,developed countries pump more than 55％ of the total emissions into the atmosphere. So when it comes to emissions,developed and developing countries can’t be compared like for like,not to be painted in the same brush.
碳减少强度 carbon reduction intensity
贫困人口 people living in poverty
排放空间 space of emission
自主减排目标 voluntary reduction targets
人均累积排放 per capita cumulative emissions
谈到气候变化的历史责任，我想引用一组数据：在1850年至2005年的155年间，全球共排放11 222亿吨二氧化碳，发达国家共排放了8 065亿吨，占全球总量的72％，欧盟占27.5％（人均累积排放：德国958吨，英国1 125吨，世界人均173吨，中国只有71吨）。2006年，发达国家以占全球六分之一的人口，仍然占据着近50％的排放。不顾历史责任和事实，空泛地谈国际合作，甚至只谈所谓共同责任是不能令世人信服的。
自由贸易 free trade
人民币汇率 RMB exchange rate
高技术出口 high-tech export
英国蒲公英馆 the British Dandelion Pavilion
China now ranks first in the world for solar heating and photovoltaic generation,as well as installed hydro power capacity. You may be surprised to know,1 in 10 families in China already use solar energy. That includes my family. Many new buildings in Chinese cities are equipped with solar energy. The fact that the Chinese people are so keen to adopt clean energy is an excellent indicator of our dedication to a better future.
We all know how trees can absorb CO2 from the atmosphere. Chinese people have really taken tree-planting to heart. It has even become fashionable for young couples to plant trees to mark their wedding. China has planted more trees than any other country in the world,with 2.6 billion trees planted. That is 2 trees per individual,an incredible number.
In the latest stimulus package worth 400 billion pound,15％ was invested in addressing climate change. I am sure you will agree that it is a huge amount by any standard,especially during the financial crisis.
Thanks to all these efforts,China is well on track to reach our targets set for 2010. That would mean a reduction in CO2 emissions of 1.5 billion tons in five years by 2010. This is an achievement that compares well with the efforts of other countries.
At the UN climate change summit last September,President Hu Jintao stated that China would take even further steps to counter climate change. To follow up,the Chinese government has announced its targets for 2020 based on 2005 levels.
—bringing down CO2 per unit of GDP by 40-45％,
—increasing the ratio of non-fossil energy to 15％,
—expanding forest coverage by 40 million hectares,that is bigger than one and half times the size of United Kingdom.
We have already closed down many of the old and high energy consuming factories,That is to say,the easier part is done. Between 1990 and 2005,the per unit GDP energy consumption came down by 47％ and between 2005 and 2010 it will again come down by 20％. The next will be raising the energy efficiency of the remaining plants. It’s going to cost more and involve more sacrifice to reduce further.
According to the International Energy Agency,if China fulfils its target for 2020,it will have reduced its emissions of CO2 by 1 billion tons. That will be a great achievement,given that we are a developing country and we have equally pressing survival priorities.
If you would allow me,I’d like to expand on this point; China may soon become the 2nd largest economy in the world. Yet it remains a developing country. This is something that many people often forget.
China’s per capita GDP has just passed 3 000 US dollars,which is 15 to 20 times less than that of the UK and the US. China is behind Jamaica and Namibia.
2. 向家坝水电站将建在长江主要支流金沙江的下游，耗资为36.8亿美元。约88 900的当地群众将因这一电站的建设而搬迁。
8. 上周二金价从6月高点下挫7％，跌至每盎司1 175美元，但上周余下时间温和反弹，周末收于1 187.70美元。
10. 在2 000名受访女性中，三分之二的人说她们希望在生孩子后还能继续工作。
1. The general level of consumer prices in China was up by 5.9 percent against the previous year. Of this,the prices for food went up by 14.3 percent and the investment prices in fixed assets were up by 8.9 percent.
2. The sales prices for housing in 70 large and medium-sized cities were up by 6.5 percent,of which new residential buildings went up by 7.1 percent,second hand housing grew by 6.2 percent,and the prices for rental and leasing were up by 1.4 percent.
3. By the end of 2008,China’s foreign exchange reserves reached 1 946.0 billion US dollars,an increase of 417.8 billion US dollars as compared with that at the end of the pervious year. At the end 2008,the exchange rate was RMB 6.834 6 to 1 US dollar,an appreciation by 6.9 percent against the end of 2007.
4. The total stock of water resources in 2008 was 2 712.7 billion cubic meters,a year-on-year increase of 7.4 percent,or 2 048 cubic meters in per capita terms,up by 6.9 percent.
5. National land surveys and geological explorations discovered a total of 209 new mineral deposits in large or medium size,including 38 energy mineral deposits,90 metallic mineral deposits,79 non-metallic mineral deposits and 2 aqueous and gaseous deposits.
6. Monitoring of oceanic water quality at 301 offshore monitoring stations indicated that oceanic water met the national quality standard Grade I and II in 70.4 percent of the stations,up by 7.6 percentage points from the previous year.
7. At the end of 2008,the daily treatment capacity of city sewage reached 82.95 million cubic meters,up 16.1 percent over that in 2007. City sewage treatment rate was 65.3 percent,up 2.4 percentage points.
8. At the end of 2008,the total number of Chinese population reached 1 328.02 million,an increase of 6.73 million against the end of 2007. The year 2008 saw 16.08 million births,a crude birth rate of 12.14 per thousand,and 9.35 million deaths,or a crude death rate of 7.06 per thousand. The natural growth rate was 5.08 per thousand. The sex ratio at birth was 120.56.
9. The total output of grain in 2008 was 528.50 million tons,an increase of 26.90 million tons or up by 5.4 percent over the previous year. Of this,the output of summer crops was 120.41 million tons,up by 2.6 percent.
10. The value of international trade denominated in RMB was $51 billion from June to November this year—more than seven times the value of such trade at the initial stage of the program.
1. In the past year,facing the severe impact of the international financial crisis,the Chinese government made the resolute decision and took timely measures to implement a package plan aimed at maintaining steady and fast growth,and our efforts resulted in quick economic rebound and recovery. Growing domestic demand has played a critical role in making it a reality. China’s GDP grew by 8.7％ in 2009,wherein growing domestic demand contributed 12.6 percentage points,making up for the loss of 3.9 percentage points caused by contraction of external demand. Investment and consumption respectively contributed 8 and 4.6 percentage points,showing a strong momentum of home-driven growth in the Chinese economy. Meanwhile,our economic growth is open in nature. China’s imports of goods totaled 1 005.6 billion US dollars last year and its trade surplus dropped by nearly 100 billion US dollars over 2008,making it the world’s second largest importer and the largest emerging market. With an increase of 380 billion US dollars in GDP,China’s contribution to world economic recovery is obvious.
To effectively cope with the crisis,we increased public spending by a large margin and carried out structural tax cuts. In 2009,over 720 billion yuan of additional public investment and tax cuts totaling 500 billion yuan added up to 3.6％ of the GDP. They stimulated market demand and spurred economic growth,while reducing burdens on enterprises and strengthening vitality of the economy. At the same time,fiscal deficit was kept within a reasonable range of less than 3％ of the GDP. The focus of public investment was to improve people’s wellbeing. In fact,under the two-year investment program totaling four trillion yuan,more than half of the government-funded projects were designed to improve people’s wellbeing,and they boosted consumer spending. Meanwhile,we significantly increased input in social security,promoted basic medical and health care system for the people as public goods,and advanced “basic medical insurance for all”. While promoting growth,we spared no efforts in readjusting the economic structure. We actively developed new industries of strategic importance,such as new energy,energy conservation and environmental protection,and accelerated the phasing out of outdated production facilities that are energy intensive and heavily polluting. Last year alone,we closed down a total of 26 million kilowatts of coal-fired power generator sets whose single unit capacity was less than 100 000 kilowatts. China’s achievements in tackling the crisis are attributable to the government’s proper decision-making. More importantly,they have been made possible by all hard working Chinese people. It is the diligence,fortitude and perseverance of the Chinese people,that has ensured China’s steady and fast economic growth.
We will rely on technological innovation,energy conservation and emissions reduction to promote industrial restructuring and upgrading. Adjustments of the world economy and upgrading of China’s domestic consumption structure require us to optimize and upgrade our industrial mix. We must adapt to market needs,encourage innovation of enterprises and be supported by technological progress. Efforts need also be made to protect intellectual property rights. These will improve the quality of manufactured products and raise the level of the manufacturing industry. At the same time,we will further strengthen the foundation of agricultural development and ensure supply of agricultural products. We will speed up development of the service industry in order to create more jobs. We will continue to phase out backward production capacities,foster new industries of strategic importance. Between 1990 and 2005,China’s energy consumption per unit of GDP fell by 46％. Recently,the Chinese government announced the target of cutting CO2 emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45％ by 2020 from the 2005 level and increasing the share of non-fossil energies in primary energy consumption to around 15％,including renewable energies and nuclear energy. This clearly represents China’s commitment to voluntary energy conservation,emissions reduction and greater restructuring. We need to place more emphasis on saving energy,increasing efficiency and protecting the environment. We will speed up development of green economy,circular economy and low-carbon economy. We will actively tackle climate change and make sure that China’s economic growth is resource efficient and environment friendly.
2. The year 2008 was truly eventful.
The national economy continued to maintain steady and rapid growth. GDP topped 30 trillion yuan,an increase of 9％ over the previous year. Overall price rises were held in check. Government revenue was 6.13 trillion yuan,an increase of 19.5％. Grain output rose for the fifth consecutive year and totaled 1 057 billion tons,a record high.
Reform and opening up were further deepened. New breakthroughs were made in reforms in key areas and crucial links,such as the fiscal,taxation,financial and pricing systems and administration. Imports and exports totaled US$ 2.56 trillion,an increase of 17.8％. Paid-in foreign direct investment reached $92.4billion.
Development of social programs was accelerated,and the living standards of the people continued to rise. A total of 11.13million more urban residents entered the workforce. Urban per capita annual disposable income reached 15 781 yuan,an increase of 8.4％ in real terms,and rural per capita net income reached 4 761 yuan,up by 8％ in real terms.
We continued to strengthen our work related to agriculture,rural areas and farmers without any letup. Central government budgetary spending on agriculture,rural areas and farmers was 595.5 billion yuan for the whole year,a year-on-year increase of 163.7 billion yuan or 37.9％. This included 103 billion yuan,twice the figure for the previous year,in direct subsidies to grain producers,general subsidies for agricultural production supplies,and subsidies for superior crop varieties and the purchase of agricultural machinery and tools. We significantly raised minimum grain purchase prices three times,with the total increase exceeding 20％. We implemented a temporary policy for purchasing and stockpiling major agricultural products. We intensified the protection of arable land and the construction of agricultural water conservancy projects,and increased overall agricultural production capacity. We supported the production of hogs,oilseeds and dairy products. These policies and measures played an important role in maintaining and stimulating the enthusiasm of farmers,ensuring the supply of major farm products and increasing rural incomes,and provided strong support for maintaining overall stability in economic and social development.
We steadfastly promoted energy conservation,emissions reduction and ecological and environmental protection. The central government allocated 42.3 billion yuan to support development of ten key energy conservation projects and environmental protection facilities. The daily sewage treatment capacity rose by an additional 11.49 million tons in urban areas,and desulfurization equipment was installed in coal-fired power plants with a total capacity of 97.12 million kilowatts. Energy consumption per unit of GDP fell by 4.59％ from the previous year; chemical oxygen demand fell by 4.42％; and sulfur dioxide emissions fell by 5.95％.
For the past three years combined,total energy consumption per unit of GDP dropped by 10.08％; chemical oxygen demand dropped by 6.61％; and sulfur dioxide emissions dropped by 8.95％. We built on the achievements in returning farmland to forests and restoring livestock pastures to grasslands,and carried out ecological conservation projects such as protecting virgin forests and developing the Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve in Qinghai Province. We implemented the plan to prevent and control water pollution in major river valleys and regions and issued the white paper China’s Policies and Actions for Addressing Climate Change.
Steady progress was made in reform and development of the pharmaceutical and health care system. A total of 814 million people,accounting for 91.5％ of the rural population,now benefit from the new type of rural cooperative medical care system. The number of selected cities participating in trials of the basic medical insurance system for urban residents increased from 88 to 317,and the number of participating individuals increased by 73.59 million to 117 million. Significant progress was made in developing a system of community-based health services in urban areas. We continued to expand the coverage of the reward and assistance system for rural families complying with family planning regulations,and implemented the “lower birthrate equals faster prosperity” program in more places in the countryside.
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