首页 理论教育 口译记忆训练(一)_大学核心商务英语口译教程

口译记忆训练(一)_大学核心商务英语口译教程

时间:2020-03-29 理论教育 联系我们

口译记忆训练(一)_大学核心商务英语口译教程

第一单元 口译记忆训练(一)

第一部分 技能总述

口译的定义

口译是有不同语言文化的人们的一种跨文化交际活动。在经济全球化的今天,口译的角色不可或缺。关于口译,不同的学者对此给出了不同的定义。“口译是翻译的一种形式,指将一种语言所表达的内容用另一种语言即时准确地表达出来。职业口译作为一种服务行为,目的在于保证使用不同语言的人们之间的交际顺利进行,促进国际间政治、经济、文化和科技交流。”(雷天放:2006);“口译,是一种通过口头表达形式,将所感知和理解的信息准确而又快速地由一种语言形式转换为另一种语言形式,进而达到即时传递与交流信息之目的的交际行为。”(梅德明:2009);“口译(interpreting)是这样一种活动:译员(interpreter)在听取源语(source language)后,通过口头表达的方式以目标语(target language)向听众传达讲话人的意思,在语言上无法互通的异语双方或多方之间通过译员的传译能够进行交流沟通。”(仲伟合,王斌华:2009)不管口译的定义如何,口译中传达的几个要点是一致的,那就是口译涉及两种语言的转换,在这个转化过程中传达的信息包括意义、语气等。下面我们来看看口译的过程。

口译的过程

口译常见的形式有交替口译(consecutive interpreting,CI)、同声传译(simultaneous interpreting,SI)、联络口译(liaison interpreting,LI)和耳语口译(whispered interpreting)四种形式,其中以交替口译和同声传译最为常见。无论是哪种形式的口译,根据以上不同学者对口译给出的定义,我们都可以根据其特点将口译的过程划分为以下四个步骤:源语听解——记忆——翻译转化——目标语表达。其中,源语听解和记忆的过程是口译的基础,如果不能准确地获取源语的信息并将其储存在记忆中,或在听解或记忆的过程中,信息有所缺失或者信息储存有误,那么,译员将无法准确、完整并且流畅地使用目标语传达源语的信息,口译工作也就无法完成。

因此,为了保证口译的质量,顺利地将源语信息全部转化为目标语,对译员的听解和记忆进行系统科学的训练是译员培训至关重要的环节。

口译记忆的工作原理

心理学根据信息在大脑中保持时间的长短将人的记忆划分为瞬时记忆、短时记忆长时记忆。(仲伟合:2003)

1. 瞬时记忆(Sensory memory)

瞬时记忆在感知后的大约200-500毫秒作出回应。例如,观察或记忆一秒钟之后记得的样子就是瞬时记忆。Sperling (Sperling,G. :1960) 通过实验证明瞬时记忆的容量大约有12个单位,瞬时记忆消失得非常迅速。人体虽然能够感知到全部的信息单位,但是因为瞬时记忆消失得太快,在信息单位消失之前人体不能报告出全部信息单位。

2. 短时记忆(Short-term memory)

短时记忆在不重复信息的情况下能够回忆几秒钟乃至一分钟的信息内容。George A. Miller(George A. Miller:1956)在Psychological Review发表的“The Magical Number Seven,Plus or Minus Two:Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information”一文中提到短时记忆能够存储7±2个信息单位。然而,短时记忆的能力可以通过分组(chunking)大大增强。例如,18位身份证号码210403198607080504可以分成三个信息组块,210403(地区号码),19860708(生日),0504(五四青年节)。利用这种方式来记忆要比单独记忆18个信息单位之多的数字号码高效得多。短时记忆保持的时间一般在0.5~18秒钟。如果不重复记忆,大约一分钟就会忘记了。由此可见,短时记忆信息保存的时间很短,而且容量十分有限。短时记忆的内容未经重复就被遗忘。如果经过重复运用或进一步加工,就能够进一步转化为长时记忆。

3. 长时记忆(Long-term memory)

瞬时记忆和短时记忆的储存能力和储存时间都非常有限,也就是说储存在瞬时记忆和短时记忆中的信息只能在一定时限中使用,如果在一定时间内没有得到利用或重复,很快就会在大脑中消失,不能永久保存。相比之下,长时记忆在储存的能力和储存时间上都大大高于前两者,甚至可以终生储存在大脑中。长时记忆的储存能力是不可估量的。上文中提到的身份证号码如果经过重复、运用或进一步加工,就能够转化为长时记忆。

口译的工作记忆(Working Memory)

在口译过程中,译员听到源语后,通过对瞬间记忆中信息的处理,将信息储存在短时记忆中,而短时记忆中的信息与长时记忆中的信息相互作用,彼此综合,此时,长时记忆中的部分信息被激活,强化短时记忆。可见,在口译中主要应用的是短时记忆。瞬时记忆是短时记忆的铺垫,长时记忆是短时记忆的补充,我们可以将口译的工作记忆用下面的方程式表现:

工作记忆=长时记忆(被激活的部分)+短时记忆

1. 影响口译工作记忆的因素

在口译过程中,很多因素会影响译员的工作记忆。口译对译员的身体素质有较高的要求,在一般的会议口译中,译员需要每天连续工作几个小时,有时甚至需要晚上加班,而且连续几天都是这种状况。译员体力不支出现状况时,必然会影响到工作记忆的正常水平。此外,译员的双语能力也会影响到工作记忆。我们在教学中发现,在英译汉的最初阶段,口译初学者的工作记忆在很大程度上受到听力理解的影响,不能充分发挥自身的记忆能力,因此导致信息丢失,甚至是错译。译者对口译内容相关背景知识了解的程度也会影响到工作记忆,如果了解程度不够,即使听到了信息,也很难将信息通过内化从而储存在短时记忆中。现场的工作环境会给译者带来一定的干扰和心理压力,也会削弱译员的工作记忆,工作现场难免会有各种噪声,译员因而产生心理压力,影响工作记忆。

从上文中我们了解到口译的过程主要依靠译员的短时记忆,短时记忆是保证口译质量的关键之一。但是,我们也清楚地认识到短时记忆存在着一定的局限性,只能存储7±2个信息单位,而且只能保持0.5~18秒钟,最长不超过1分钟。而一般性质的交传,说话者的停顿间隔一般在3~15分钟。有时译员缺乏口译内容的相关背景知识,或者很少接触相关内容,在这样的情况下,译员储存在长时记忆中的相关知识非常不活跃,很难激活长时记忆,导致工作记忆无法有效地运转。由此可见,译员的工作记忆在口译过程中承受了巨大的压力,只有提高工作记忆的能力,才能突破瓶颈,保证口译工作的顺利进行。

2. 工作记忆的训练方法

达尼卡·塞莱斯科维奇(Danica Seleskovitch:1992)在《口译技艺:即席口译与同声传译经验谈》中对两种记忆方式进行比较,一种是记住500个词的一段话,另一种是记住整部电影。实验的结果表明能够非常容易地记住一部电影所有情节的实验对象再去记忆那段500个词的文章需要大约一个小时。两种记忆方式之间存在较大的差异,前者为内容记忆,人们很容易就可以记住电影的情节,因为情节之间的逻辑关系紧凑,再加上视觉和声音的辅助,记忆起来省时省力。后者为文字记忆,是逐字逐句的记忆,而且没有视觉和声音的辅助,因此记忆起来比较困难,而且比较耗时。由此可见,只要我们通过某种方式将被记忆的内容联系到一起,同时增加记忆辅助,就能很大程度地提高记忆力

工作记忆能力的训练方法

1. 听觉、视觉和语义记忆法

仲伟合在Memory Training in Interpreting(仲伟合:2003)一文中提到信息必须通过编码才能储存到短时记忆中,在操作的过程中存在许多的可能性。信息主要以三种形态储存在短时记忆中:(1)声音编码通过声音重复记忆(Conrad:1964 & Baddeley:1966)。(2)视觉编码通过图像储存信息。(Posner & Keele:1967)。(3)语义编码是利用信息的意义来储存信息,将信息与某种抽象概念联系到一起(Baddeley:1990,Goodhead:1999)。

根据以上的分析,我们可以将记忆内容听觉化、图像化以加深记忆。同时,在听解过程中抓住文章的意思,体会文章的深层结构,而非表层结构中的字或词。

2. 联系记忆法

Harry Lorayne. A Thomas 和 Co. Preston在How to develop a super powered memory(Harry Lorayne. A Thomas & Co. Preston:1989)对联想记忆法给出了生动详细的解析。未经过记忆训练的人在只听或看一遍之后,几乎不可能按照顺序记住毫不相关的20件物品。但是,经过联想记忆的训练之后,我们可以将不可能变为可能。

书中给出了二十件毫不相关的物品:

地毯、纸、瓶子、床、鱼、椅子、窗户、电话、香烟、指甲、打字机、鞋、手机、笔、电视、盘子、油炸圈、车、咖啡壶、砖头。

联系记忆是建立在感觉意象的基础上。这些意象越荒谬越容易记忆。第一件物品是“地毯”,那么首先在脑海中想象地毯的图像,任何的地毯都可以,可以是自己家里的地毯。为了记住这些物品,最好是把它们和你所熟悉的物品联系到一起。

第二件是“纸”,必须将“地毯”和“纸”联系到一起,这种联系越离谱越好。例如,你可以想象家里的地毯是纸做的。然后你看见自己走在上面,听到脚踩在地毯上发出沙沙的声音。或者你可以想象自己在纸制的地毯上写字。

接下来作者将下面所有的物品用这种方式联系到了一起,之间的联系荒谬且不符合正常逻辑。

最后总结了几点联系记忆法的注意事项:

(1)想象物品的大小不成比例。

(2)想象物品动起来。

(3)无限夸大物品的数目。

(4)替代物品,例如抽的是手指,而不是烟。

联系记忆通常能够帮助译员将毫不相关的事物联系到一起,从而记住出现的物体以及出现的顺序。

3. 时间空间顺序记忆法

有时文章会对某一特定时期内连续发生的事情进行列举,例如对双边贸易额某一段时期内的变化情况进行介绍,或者是公司几年内营业额的变化情况介绍,等等。此外,文章中还可能出现对某一地点或场所的介绍,例如对工厂整个布局的介绍,或是对公司的环境介绍,等等。这种情况我们可以利用笔记按照事物发展的时间顺序或空间顺序记录,然后逐一译出。记忆空间顺序时可以同时利用视觉记忆,在脑海中形成图画,可以辅助、增强记忆。

第二部分 技巧解析

请看下面的例句:

1. 我公司计划从贵公司订购以下文具:圆珠笔、钢笔、墨水、白板笔、复印纸、便签纸、信封、计算器、多孔插座和订书器。

2. 欧洲的农产品需求主要有六类,包括:(1)鱼、甲壳动物、软体动物及其他水生无脊椎动物;(2)蔬菜水果;(3)咖啡、茶、马黛茶及调味香料;(4)动物饲料;(5)含油子仁及果实;(6)软木及木制品。

首先将例句中给出的物品视觉化,想象物品无限大或者无限小,夸大物品原有的尺寸,也可以让物品在脑海中运动起来,或者无限夸大物品的数目。例句1中我们可以想象,回家后一推门看见门口站着一只巨大的圆珠笔,圆珠笔的旁边是一只舞动的钢笔插在墨水瓶中贪婪地喝着墨水,一个小朋友手里拿着白板笔趴在地上在复印纸上画画,屋子的墙壁上贴满了便签纸,地毯大小的信封在屋子里飞来飞去,一只胖乎乎的计算器站在信封上跳舞,无数支小小的多孔插座和订书器追逐着信封。可以在物品与物品之间设定固定的联系便于记忆物品顺序。

例句2中有六类产品,每类产品中包含两至四小类,我们在想象时可以将每大类放在一个空间中,分成六个相互联系的空间或场所,然后将每大类中的物品联系到一起。我们可以想象在海底,看到无数只游来游去的小鱼中有一只硕大无比的龙虾(甲壳动物)向你游过来,龙虾的背上坐着一只大大的蜗牛(软体动物),蜗牛的后面藏着一只八爪鱼,海面上漂着一艘船,船里面装满了蔬菜和水果。你来到了咖啡厅,考虑是喝咖啡还是喝茶,咖啡厅的桌子上摆满了调味料,穿过餐厅来到船的货舱,货舱左面堆放着饲料,右面堆放着含油子仁及果实,穿过货舱来到甲板,甲板是木制的,上面放着打开的红酒和软木塞。

第三部分 课文详解

词汇拓展

互信 mutual trust

增长率 growth rate

双边货物贸易额 bilateral trade

大萧条 Great Depression

严峻考验 severe challenges

贸易保护主义 trade protectionism

一揽子经济刺激计划 a stimulus package

限定规模以上工业 industrial enterprises above designated size

流动性 liquidity

固定资产投资 fixed assets investment

消费需求 consumption demand

投资环境考察 investment environment study tours

立足点 standpoint,foothold

携手合作开创中美经贸合作新局面

各位来宾、女士们、先生们,

华盛顿美好的秋季,我很高兴能出席中美高技术与战略贸易工作组第四次会议。这是在第20届中美商贸联委会即将召开前的一次重要会议,对两国高技术贸易合作具有重要的促进作用。在此,我谨代表中国商务部对会议的召开表示祝贺,向美国商务部、美国制造商协会及所有参与组织本次会议的人员表示诚挚的谢意!

作为中国商务部主管高技术贸易和出口管制的副部长,我深知此项工作的重要性。在扩大中美高技术贸易方面,互信是关键,沟通是基础。在本次会议上,中美双方相关政府官员和企业代表共同参加,这对增加中美政府层面和企业层面的相互了解、增进互信、促进中美高技术贸易进一步健康发展、造福两国人民具有重要作用。

下面,我谈谈中美经贸关系。

2.09年是中美关系中非常重要而有意义的一年,双方确立了共同努力建设21世纪积极合作全面的中美关系新定位。中美高层往来频繁,交流富有成效。

中美经贸关系是中美关系的重要基础和组成部分。建交30年来,通过两国政府和业界的共同努力,中美经贸关系稳定健康发展。根据中方统计,2008年双边货物贸易额达到3 337亿美元,比2001年翻两番年均增长率达19.5%。美国对华出口815亿美元,是2001年的三倍,年均增长率15.2%。两国互为第二大贸易伙伴,美国是中国的第二大出口市场和第六大进口来源地,中国是美国的第三大出口市场和第一大进口来源地,连续七年成为美增长最快的主要出口市场。两国在贸易、投资、科技、能源、环境等领域开展全方位合作,经贸合作的规模迅速扩大,领域不断拓宽,内涵日益丰富,形式更加多样。两国经济互补性强,联系紧密,相互依存度较高。

当前,我们正经历着百年不遇的金融危机,世界经济陷入了自上世纪大萧条以来最困难的境地,中国经济发展也面临着严峻考验,中美经贸合作也受到了一定冲击。中国作为负责任的大国,在危机中采取了积极负责的态度。中国把扩大国内需求作为促进经济增长的基本立足点,果断实施一揽子经济刺激计划。从今年上半年情况看,固定资产投资增长加快,消费需求稳定较快增长,规模以上工业增速逐月回升,银行体系流动性充裕。这些迹象表明中国经济已经出现积极变化,形势比预料的要好。中国经济的稳定发展将给其他国家提供更多发展机遇和就业机会,有助于提振世界经济信心。

中方高度重视中美经贸合作。今年4月,中国商务部与有关商协会组织了84家企业、197名企业家在美国14个州、16个城市开展了60多项经贸论坛、贸易和投资项目签约、投资环境考察等促进活动,共签署贸易和投资协议183.4亿美元。在本月上旬中国全国人大吴邦国委员长访美期间,中美企业界签署了41项合作协议,总金额达124亿美元。这充分表明了中国政府在困难形势下,坚持以实际行动反对贸易保护主义,以加强合作应对危机的鲜明立场。

各位朋友,在经济全球化深入发展的今天,携手合作是我们应对危机唯一正确的选择。在任何情况下,中美双方都应从战略高度和长远角度看待和处理中美经贸关系,坚持“以合作化解分歧、以合作促进发展”方针,努力寻找和扩大利益汇合点,共谋两国经贸合作发展的大局。

(来源:商务部网站)

解析

1. 在华盛顿美好的秋季,我很高兴能出席中美高技术与战略贸易工作组第四次会议。这是在第20届中美商贸联委会即将召开前的一次重要会议,对两国高技术贸易合作具有重要的促进作用。在此,我谨代表中国商务部对会议的召开表示祝贺,向美国商务部、美国制造商协会及所有参与组织本次会议的人员表示诚挚的谢意!

致辞开头的套语翻译是固定的,我们可以记住其固定的模式:

● 我很高兴能出席……,

I am very pleased/glad to come to/attend…,it is my honor to attend/participate in…

● 我谨代表……对……表示祝贺。

On behalf of…,I would like to congratulate on… and extend my sincere thanks to for…

以下是致辞开头可能出现的句型:

● 现在我宣布……会议现在开幕。

May I hereby declare open…

● 请允许我对……会议取得成功表示热烈的祝贺。

First of all,please allow me to offer warm congratulations on the success of ...

● 首先请允许我感谢……的精心安排与热情好客。

Please allow me to first of all to thank you …for your extraordinary arrangements and hospitality.

● 我谨代表……感谢各位从百忙之中拨冗光临我们的新春联欢晚会。

On behalf of … I wish to thank you all for your taking time off your busy schedule to come to...

● 今晚我们请到了……与我们一起共度中秋佳节,我为此而深感自豪与荣幸。

I feel very proud and honored tonight to have …to join us in our celebration of the Mid-Autumn Festival.

● 我谨代表我们一行的全体成员,感谢……的盛情邀请。

On behalf of all the members of my group,I’d like to thank you … for your gracious invitation.

● 首先,请允许我代表……,向……,表示热烈的欢迎。

First of all,permit me,on behalf of…,to extend our warm welcome to…

2. 根据中方统计,2008年双边货物贸易额达到3 337亿美元,比2001年翻两番年均增长率达19.5%。美国对华出口815亿美元,是2001年的三倍,年均增长率15.2%。倍数口译是口译中的一大难点,英语和汉语之间的差别在于中文句子结构有时包含基数,有时不包含基数,而英文句子包含基数。

例如:

● The revenue this year is twice as much as that of last year.

今年的收入比去年增加了一倍/今年的收入比去年翻了一番/今年的收入是去年的两倍。

● The revenue this year is twice more than that of last year.

今年的收入比去年多两倍。

● 甲是乙的两倍twice as…as/twice the number/size/length of/to increase by 100%/double(a./v.)

● 甲是乙的三倍thrice/three times as…as/thrice/three times the number of/to increase by 200%/triple

3. 当前,我们正经历着百年不遇的金融危机,世界经济陷入了自上世纪大萧条以来最困难的境地,中国经济发展也面临着严峻考验,中美经贸合作也受到了一定冲击。中文中经常会出现几个简单句同时并列出现,在口译中我们可以通过整合将几个简单句整合成为英文中的一个或两个句子。

此处译文为At this moment,we are experiencing a rarely seen financial crisis. With the world economy mired in the worst situation since the Great Depression of the last century,China is facing severe challenges in economic development,and China-US trade and economic cooperation has also been affected.可见,译文中利用介词结构和and将原文中的后三个短句整合到了一起,介词结构是处理此类问题的较好办法。

4. 两国在贸易、投资、科技、能源、环境等领域开展全方位合作,经贸合作的规模迅速扩大,领域不断拓宽,内涵日益丰富,形式更加多样。两国经济互补性强,联系紧密,相互依存度较高。

译文:The two countries have launched all-dimensional cooperation in areas of trade,investment,science and technology,energy and environment. The scale and scope of cooperation has been enlarged,and the cooperation is rich in contents and takes various forms. Economically the two countries are very much complementary,closely linked and highly interdependent.

这句话的翻译运用了翻译中的拆分技巧。将原来的一句拆分为两句,这种现象在汉英翻译中非常常见,汉语中常常连续出现结果相似、内容不同的短句。遇到这种情况时,可以将原文的长句拆分成译文中的两句或几句。

第四部分 技巧练习

(一)按照口译记忆工作原理,尝试记忆下列汉语句子,并译成英语。

1. 中国每年从美国进口大量小麦、大豆、柑橘等农产品和飞机、化肥、机电设备等,既为美国经济发展和解决就业提供了有力支撑,也满足了中国生产生活所需。

2. 畜牧业是本地的支柱型产业,我们主要出口的畜牧产品包括:猪肉、牛肉、羊肉、禽肉(鸡爪、鸡腿、鸡翅、鸡胸)。

3. 第一批救灾物资已经在两天前到达甘肃舟曲,其中包括帐篷、棉被、睡袋、急救包、防暑药品、方便面、香肠、矿泉水、面粉。

4. 三年内中国将逐步批准外国企业参与进口商品的分销业务,并允许其提供与分销相关的一系列服务,如维护、保管、仓储、包装、广告、货运、航运快递、市场营销、客户支持等。

5. 中国移动通信除提供基本话音业务外,还提供传真、数据、IP电话、多媒体等多种增值业务,拥有“全球通”、“神州行”、“动感地带”三大服务品牌。

6. 欧盟企业在机械、汽车、化工、电子传统产业以及银行、保险等服务领域具有先进设备、技术和管理经验,适合中国经济结构调整的需要,欧盟企业和中国企业可以通过多种形式开展合作。

7. 该基地将重点开发并最终形成五大综合功能:即市场信息、现代仓储、专业配送、多式联运和展示及交易,实现公路、铁路、航运、航空等不同运输形式的有效衔接。

8. 西门子的业务主要集中于六大领域:信息和通信、自动化和控制、电力、交通、医疗系统和照明。

9. 通过对外开放,中国的电子、通信、家电、纺织等行业迅速发展,制造业整体竞争实力提高。

10. 2005年7月20日,我国同文莱、印尼、马来西亚、缅甸、新加坡和泰国相互实施全面降税,其他东盟国家随后也相继加入降税。

(二)按照口译记忆工作原理,尝试记忆下列英语句子,并译成汉语。

1. The United States mainly sells to China capital and technology-intensive products such as aircraft,power generation equipment,machinery,electronics,telecommunications equipment and chemical machinery,as well as agricultural products including grain and cotton.

2. The two countries have been locked in a trade dispute since April,when Japan raised tariffs on imports of some Chinese goods,including shiitake mushrooms,spring onions and straw for tatami mats.

3. Macy’s sells a wide range of merchandise,including men’s,women’s and children’s apparel and accessories,cosmetics,home furnishings and other consumer goods.

4. We deliver a range of practical services,including:advice and consultancy,market research,event management,an overseas market introduction service,trade missions and exhibitions,and setting up rep offices.

5. We offer confidential and secure transactions. So you may sell your diamonds,watches,necklaces,rings,bracelets,earrings and other used jewelry and turn them into cash in your hand.

6. Since 1975,methane concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by more than 150%. The primary sources for the additional methane added to the atmosphere are rice cultivation,domestic grazing animals,termites,landfills,coal mining,and oil and gas extraction.

7. Are the Americans apt enough to cooperate with other peoples to prevent overpopulation,resource exhaustion,the catastrophe of pollution and the waste of wealth,which is basic to the solution of many outstanding economic,social and political problems?

8. APEC now has 21 members:Australia,Brunei Darussalam,Canada,Chile,China,China’s Hong Kong,Indonesia,Japan,Korea,Malaysia,Mexico,New Zealand,Papua New Guinea,Peru,the Philippines,Russia,Singapore,China’s Taiwan,Thailand,the United States and Vietnam.

9. Ford Motor Company’s automotive brands include Ford,Lincoln,Mercury,Mazda,Volvo,Aston Martin,Jaguar,and Land Rover.

10. Currently,Siemens is developing solutions for major challenges of the future in the fields of healthcare,energy,water,communications,mobility,security,logistics and automation.

第五部分 练习拓展

1.  There are ways to break the vicious circle,and they don’t necessarily require the most expensive office chair or expert intervention,according to Tony Biafore,an ergonomics expert president of Ergonetics.

Decrease the Risk Factors

To avoid pain and possibly chronic problems,ergonomics experts recommend several ways of developing a low-risk working posture:

Sit naturally. “Many people perch on their chair,lean forward,and tuck their feet under,especially when they’re concentrating,” Biafore said. Notice how you sit,and make adjustments to the chair or to your posture if any part of your body is experiencing tightness,strain,or pain.

Type right. You shouldn’t have to change your seated posture or angle your hands to type. The keyboard should come to you. If it doesn’t,adjust your seating position,or ask for a keyboard tray.

Check your viewpoint. Your eyes should naturally gaze at the middle of the computer screen. If you have to look up or down,move the display. This goes for placement of paper documents as well—you shouldn’t have to crane your neck to see them.

Source:http://www.hxen.com/interpretation/kouyiziliao/2009-02-17/68680.html

2.  Size matters. If we look only at China’s average level of development,we see a country with much the same standard of living as Thailand. If we look only at China’s size,we see what is already the world’s second largest economy,biggest exporter (if members of the European Union are treated as separate economies),second largest importer and holder of the largest stock of foreign currency reserves.

China’s leaders are,naturally and rightly,focused on sustaining stability and achieving prosperity. The rest of the world is,no less naturally and rightly,wondering how China will exercise its growing power and responsibility.

So far,despite the difficulties,the adjustment to China’s rise has been remarkably successful,particularly if one considers the gulf in culture,history and political systems between China and incumbent powers. The Chinese economy has proved outstandingly dynamic and increasingly market-driven. The west,in turn,has accommodated itself to China’s rise. That was the wise thing to do.

Source:http://www.cuyoo.com/home/article-5470-1.html

3.  我的工作从联合国转到美国,刚好已有半年。按惯例,我该向国内提交述职报告了。我希望今晚同大家的互动交流,能为我准备述职报告带来一些启发。

在中美关系进入重要发展阶段之时出任中国驻美国大使,我倍感荣幸。当前,中美两国的利益联系日益紧密,相互依存不断加深。现在,两国互为第二大贸易伙伴,过去十年美国对华出口增长了330%,今年前八个月美国对华出口又增长了34.4%。美国对华直接投资总额达640亿美元,美国继续是中国最大的外资来源国。两国之间每年人员往来超过250万人次。约10万名中国留学生正在美国学习深造。中美之间已缔结161对友好城市和36对友好省州。两国还在一系列国际和地区问题上保持着密切沟通与合作。

我高兴地看到,经过双方共同努力,中美关系已经克服今年年初的困难局面,回到正常发展的轨道。通过这半年来的工作,我深切地体会到,保持中美关系稳定发展,确实太重要了。怎么保持中美关系的稳定发展呢?我愿借此机会同大家分享以下三点看法。

Source:http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/chn/gxh/wzb/zwbd/dszlsjt/t753668.htm

4. 国际形势的新变化和亚拉合作的新发展对论坛建设提出了新要求。亚拉论坛也应该顺应形势,与时俱进。论坛合作应以增进了解为基石,加强亚拉各国间全方位交流,不断丰富和分享各自发展的成功经验,进一步夯实亚拉友好合作的基础,提升亚拉大家庭意识。论坛合作应以务实合作为抓手,通过加强两地区在经贸、文化、科技等领域的优势互补,实现互利共赢,共同发展。论坛合作应以应对全球性挑战为共同目标,加强沟通和协调,凝聚共识,不断扩大利益融合,表达共同立场,为全球合作作出更大贡献。论坛合作应以加强论坛机制为保障,坚持协商一致,整合资源,提高效率,稳步落实有关改革措施,打造更加高效务实的交流合作平台。

Source:http://www.putclub.com/html/ability/translation/

interpretation/exercise/Diplomatic/2010/0324/13278.html

第六部分 段落实战与演练(www.guayunfan.com)

Passage 1

中国—新西兰自贸区研讨会上的讲话

词汇补充

充分审视 fully review

抵制 boycott

执行情况 implementation

贸易顺差 trade surplus

逆差 deficit

互利共赢 the mutual benefit and win-win

全球多边贸易体制 global multilateral trade system

多哈回合谈判 Doha Round negotiation

陷入僵局 come to a deadlock

同舟共济的精神 the spirit of solidarity

优惠政策 preferential policy

谋先则事昌。 It won’t succeed until you plan first.

很高兴在暮春时节来到美丽的上海,参加“中国—新西兰自由贸易区研讨会”。5 月的上海正值世博会盛大举行,我相信装扮一新的上海必定会给大家留下深刻的印象,也预祝新西兰国家馆的展览取得圆满成功! 在此,我要感谢格罗泽部长的盛情邀请,同时也要感谢中国浦东干部管理学院为此次研讨会筹备所付出的辛勤努力。

历经为时三年十七轮的艰苦谈判,2008年4月,中国—新西兰自由贸易协定正式签署。这是中新双边关系发展历程中一座新的里程碑,同时也是中国实施自由贸易区战略过程中迈出的关键一步。它是中国与发达国家签署的第一个自由贸易协定,也是中国与其他国家签署的第一个同时全面涉及货物贸易、服务贸易、投资等诸多领域的自由贸易协定。协定的签署充分表明了中国政府在新时期、新起点上进一步扩大和深化改革开放的信心和决心。

协定实施目前进入到第二年关键时期。我们今天在这里召开中新自贸区研讨会十分及时,意义重大。双方可借此机会回顾协定各项机制和安排的落实情况,发现和解决实施中存在的困难和问题。这不仅有利于两国政府充分审视协定的执行情况,更有助于双方企业和地方政府进一步了解自贸协定的内容,充分挖掘未来合作潜力。

中国政府历来坚持自由贸易,保持市场开放,抵制贸易保护主义,并通过自身经济迅速企稳向好支持了全球经济的复苏。据WTO统计,以2005年不变价格计算,2009年全球实际进口量下降了12.9%,美国、欧盟等主要发达国家下降幅度更大,分别达到了16.5%和14.5%。相比之下,中国进口增长了2.8%,是主要经济体中唯一进口呈现增长的国家。今年一季度的贸易数字更能说明问题。2010年1-3月,中国进口增长64.5%,出口增长28.7%,顺差下降76.7%。3月当月首次出现了70个月以来的月度逆差,达72.4亿美元。由此可见,中国强劲的国内消费以及透明开放的贸易政策为世界经济复苏作出了重要贡献。

坚持互利共赢的开放战略,支持全球多边贸易体制发展,反对贸易保护主义,是中国政府对外的郑重承诺和现实行动,也是中国经济实现持续稳定发展的必由之路。特别是在当前多哈回合谈判陷入僵局,多边贸易体制面临严峻考验的时期,中新双方更应该秉着“同舟共济”的精神,倡导发展自由贸易,推动多哈回合谈判早日结束。

女士们,先生们,

我了解到,今天在座的各位许多是来自我国中西部地区的政府官员。相对于东部沿海地区,中西部地区对外贸易的规模和结构都有着更大的提升空间和后发优势。如何通过进一步改革开放,扩大对外贸易,促进投资合作,增强企业国际竞争力是我们地方政府需要着力研究的课题。

中国古话有云:谋先则事昌。我希望,通过此次研讨会,与会的各位政府官员能够成为自贸协定的实践者和推动者,帮助企业用足用好协定所达成的优惠政策,让企业和消费者实实在在地从中受益。中国商务部将一如既往地做好自贸协定的执行和宣传工作,为中—新企业合作提供更为便捷的服务。

最后,预祝此次研讨会圆满成功。

Source:http://club.topsage.com/thread-2248112-1-1.html

Passage 2

加快对外贸易的战略转型——第八届中国进出口企业年会演讲

词汇补充

中国进出口企业年会 The China Import & Export Enterprise Annual Meeting

极不平凡 extremely eventful

迎难而上,危中抢机 to confront the difficulties and seize opportunities in the crisis

保市场、保份额 to stabilize market and the market share

相对份额 relative quota

战略转型 the strategic transformation

各位来宾,女士们、先生们、朋友们:

大家上午好!

一年一届的中国进出口企业年会,再次把大家聚到了这里。自2002年以来,商务部研究院已经成功举办了七届进出口企业年会,这既是一个分享收获、交流经验的平台,更是企业、学界和政府共聚智慧、探讨发展思路的平台。在这里,我谨代表商务部对本届中国进出口企业年会的顺利召开,表示衷心的祝贺。

刚刚过去的2009年,是我国外贸发展史上极不平凡的一年,也是改革开放以来进出口最为困难的一年。面对历史罕见的国际金融危机严重冲击,党中央、国务院审时度势、果断决策,及时制订出台了稳定外需的一系列政策措施,各地方和部门通力合作,着力优化外贸发展环境,进出口企业迎难而上,危中抢机。2009年,我国外贸总额同比下降13.9%、出口下降16%,尽管没有增长,但保市场、保份额的目标成功实现;尽管绝对规模下降,但相对份额有所上升。2009年,中国出口有望超过德国升至全球第一,贸易总额也有望超过德国升至全球第二,尽管纵向比较下降幅度较大,但横向比较中国依然是表现最好的国家之一。去年全球贸易量预计下降12%,而我出口量下降10.5%,进口量增加1.5%。

各位来宾:中国对外贸易的战略转型,是一个值得深入研究和讨论的重大课题,我这里也只是点题而已,希望大家能进一步交流和探讨。本届年会既有政府官员和专家,更多是来自第一线的企业界朋友;既有国内学者,也有海外专家;既有产业界的人士,也有金融领域的高管。希望大家借助这个平台,通过理论与实践的碰撞、短期问题与战略问题的交融,对政府制订政策、对企业启发思路,多献计献策。

预祝本届年会取得圆满成功,谢谢大家!

Source:http://english.mofcom.gov.cn/aarticle/subject/cv/lanmud/201007/20100707040452.html

Passage 3

温家宝总理在英国剑桥大学的演讲

词汇补充

解放思想 to free people’s mind

体制创新 institutional innovation

资源配置 to allocate resources

法制 legal system

以人为本 human-oriented; People are the masters of the country.

九年义务教育 free nine-year compulsory education

人均寿命 the average life expectancy

政通人和,兴旺发达 to promote stability,harmony and prosperity

尊敬的理查德校长,女士们,先生们:

来到向往已久的剑桥大学,非常高兴。剑桥举世闻名,培养出牛顿、达尔文、培根等许多杰出的科学家、思想家,为人类文明进步作出了重要贡献。今年是剑桥建校800周年,我谨致以热烈祝贺!

这是我第四次访问英国。中英相距遥远,但两国人民的友好交往不断增多。香港问题的圆满解决,经贸、文教、科技等领域的有效合作,为发展中英全面战略伙伴关系奠定了坚实基础。在此,我向长期致力于中英友好的朋友们表示崇高的敬意!

今天,我演讲的题目是:用发展的眼光看中国。

我深深爱着的祖国——古老而又年轻。

说她古老,她是一个有着数千年文明史的东方大国。中华民族以自己的勤劳和智慧,创造了灿烂的古代文明,对人类发展作出过重大贡献。

说她年轻,新中国成立才60年,改革开放才30年。中国人民经过长期不懈的斗争建立了新中国,又经过艰苦的探索,终于找到了适合国情的发展道路——中国特色社会主义道路,文明古国焕发了青春活力。

中国改革开放,最重要的是解放思想,最根本、最具有长远意义的是体制创新。我们推进经济体制改革,建立了社会主义市场经济体制。在政府的宏观调控下,充分发挥市场对资源配置的基础性作用。我们深化政治体制改革,把发展民主和完善法制结合起来,实行人民当家作主,依法治国,建设社会主义法治国家。

改革开放的实质,就是坚持以人为本,通过解放和发展生产力满足人们日益增长的物质文化需求,在公正的条件下促进人的全面发展;就是保障人民的民主权利,让国家政通人和、兴旺发达;就是维护人的尊严和自由,让每个人的智慧和力量得以迸发,成功地追求自己的幸福生活。

三十年来,中国贫困人口减少了2亿多,人均寿命提高了5岁,8 300万残疾人得到政府和社会的特殊关爱,这是中国保障人权的光辉业绩。九年义务教育的推行,农村合作医疗制度的建立,社会保障体系的完善,使学有所教、病有所医、老有所养的理想,正在变为现实。

我愿借用两句唐诗形容中国的现状:“潮平两岸阔,风正一帆悬。”中国人正在努力实现现代化,这是一个古而又新的发展中大国进行的一场伟大实践。掌握了自己命运的中国人民,对未来充满信心!

Source:http://www.china.com.cn/education/txt/2009-02/05/content_17229080_5.htm

Passage 4

President Obama’s Remarks at the Presidential Summit on Entrepreneurship Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center

词汇补充

Presidential Summit on Entrepreneurship总统倡导的创业峰会

grass roots 草根,基层

conviction 坚定的信仰

Thank you very much.

Everybody,please have a seat.

Good evening,everyone,and welcome to Washington.

In my life,and as President,I have had the great pleasure of visiting many of your countries,and I’ve always been grateful for the warmth and the hospitality that you and your fellow citizens have shown me. And tonight,I appreciate the opportunity to return the hospitality

For many of you,I know this is the first time visiting our country. So let me say,on behalf of the American people,welcome to the United States of America.

It is an extraordinary privilege to welcome you to this Presidential Summit on Entrepreneurship. This has been a coordinated effort across my administration,and I want to thank all the hardworking folks and leaders at all the departments and agencies who made it possible,and who are here tonight.

Now,I know some have asked—given all the security and political and social challenges we face,why a summit on entrepreneurship? The answer is simple.

Entrepreneurship—because you told us that this was an area where we can learn from each other; where America can share our experience as a society that empowers the inventor and the innovator; where men and women can take a chance on a dream—taking an idea that starts around a kitchen table or in a garage,and turning it into a new business and even new industries that can change the world.

Entrepreneurship—because throughout history,the market has been the most powerful force the world has ever known for creating opportunity and lifting people out of poverty.

Entrepreneurship—because it’s in our mutual economic interest. Trade between the United States and Muslim-majority countries has grown. But all this trade,combined,is still only about the same as our trade with one country—Mexico. So there’s so much more we can do together,in partnership,to foster opportunity and prosperity in all our countries.

And social entrepreneurship—because,as I learned as a community organizer in Chicago,real change comes from the bottom up,from the grassroots,starting with the dreams and passions of single individuals serving their communities.

So,yes,the new beginning we seek is not only possible,it has already begun. It exists within each of you,and millions around the world who believe,like we do,that the future belongs not to those who would divide us,but to those who come together; not to those who would destroy,but those who would build; not those trapped in the past,but those who,like us,believe with confidence and conviction in a future of justice and progress and the dignity of all human beings regardless of their race,regardless of their religion

That’s the enormous potential that we’re hoping to unlock during this conference and hoping to continue not only this week but in the months and years ahead. So I’m grateful that all of you are participating. May God bless you all and may God’s peace be upon you. Thank you very much. Thank you.

Source:http://www.exam8.com/english/trans/fudao/yanjiang/201005/1329203_2.html

参考答案

第三部分 课文详解

Working Together to Create a New Chapter for China-US Trade and Economic Cooperation

Dear Guests,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

I am very pleased to come to Washington in this beautiful autumn for the fourth meeting of the China-US High Technology and Strategic Trade Working Group. This is an important meeting before the upcoming 20th JCCT and will greatly promote high-tech trade between the two countries. Hereby,on behalf of MOFCOM,I would like to congratulate on the meeting and extend my sincere thanks to DOC,NAM and all the organizers for their hard efforts.

As Vice Minister of Commerce in charge of high-tech trade and export control,I am deeply aware of the significance of this job. Mutual trust is the key to and communication the basis for expanding high-tech trade between China and the US. With government officials and business representatives from both sides sitting down together,this meeting will play an important role in boosting mutual understanding and mutual trust between the Chinese and US governments and industries,ensuring the sound development of Sino-US high-tech trade,and benefiting the two peoples.

Now let me share with you my following observations.

First,on China-US economic and trade relationship

The year 2009 is very important and meaningful for China-US relationship. It is in this year that the two sides agreed on the new positioning of the relationship and were jointly committed to building a positive,cooperative and comprehensive China-US relationship in the 21st century. The two sides have witnessed frequent and fruitful exchanges of high-level official visits.

China-US economic and trade ties are an important foundation and component of the relationship. Since the two countries established diplomatic relationship 30 years ago,bilateral economic and trade relations have developed steadily and soundly thanks to the joint efforts of the two governments and business communities. According to Chinese figures,bilateral trade in goods reached US$ 333.7 billion in 2008,quadrupling that of 2001 with an average annual growth rate of 19.5%. The US export to China stood at US$ 81.5 billion,trebling that of 2001 with an average annual growth rate of 15.2%. The two countries are each other’s second largest trading partner. The US is the second largest export market of China and its sixth largest source of import,while China is the third largest export destination and the biggest import source of the US,and has been the fastest growing major export market of the US for 7 years in a row. The two countries have launched all-dimensional cooperation in areas of trade,investment,science and technology,energy and environment. The scale and scope of cooperation has been enlarged,and the cooperation is rich in contents and takes various forms. The two countries are strongly complementary in economy,closely linked and highly interdependent.

At this moment,we are experiencing a rarely seen financial crisis. With the world economy mired in the worst situation since the Great Depression of the last century,China is facing severe challenges in economic development,and China-US trade and economic cooperation has also been affected. As a responsible major country,China has taken a positive and responsible attitude in the crisis. It has decisively adopted a stimulus package and identified domestic demand expansion as the basic standing point of economic growth. In the first half of this year,fixed assets investment increased faster and consumption demand picked up steadily and rapidly. Industrial enterprises above designated size grew with each passing month,and banks enjoyed abundant liquidity. All those signs suggest that positive changes have taken place in the Chinese economy and the situation is better than expected. The steady development of China’s economy will provide other countries with more opportunities and jobs,and will help boost confidence in the world economy.

The Chinese side places great emphasis on China-US trade and economic cooperation. Last April,MOFCOM and relevant chambers of commerce and trade associations organized a series of promoting activities in 16 cities of 14 states in the US,attended by 197 entrepreneurs representing 84 companies from China. Those activities included over 60 economic and trade forums,signing of agreements on trade and investment projects and investment environment study tours. The signed trade and investment agreements involved a total value of US$ 18.34 billion. During the visit of Wu Bangguo,NPC Standing Committee Chairman,to the US early this month,41 cooperation agreements were signed between Chinese and American companies with a total value of US$ 12.4 billion. That has fully testified to the unequivocal commitment of the Chinese government to opposing trade protectionism with real action and responding to the crisis with strengthened cooperation in the difficult situation.

Dear friends,

Cooperation is the only right choice for us to tackle the crisis in today’s world of in-depth globalization. Under whatever circumstances,both sides should treat and deal with China-US economic and trade ties from a strategic height and a long-term perspective. We should adhere to the guideline of “resolving disputes by cooperation and promoting development by cooperation”,identify and expand the convergence of interests,and seek the overall development of China-US trade and economic cooperation.

第四部分 技巧练习

汉英练习

1. China imports a large number of products from America every year,including wheat,soybean,citrus and other agricultural products,and aircrafts,fertilizer,electromechanical equipment and so on,which provides vigorous support for the economic development and employment in America,at the same time,satisfies the needs of production and living in China.

2. Livestock industry is the pillar industry here. The livestock products we export mainly include pork,beef,lamb,poultry (chicken toes,chicken drumsticks,chicken wings and chicken breast).

3. The first relief supplies arrived at Zhouqu,Gansu two days ago,including tents,cotton quilts,sleeping bags,first aid kits,heatstroke prevention medicines,instant noodles,sausages,mineral water and flour.

4. China will gradually give permission to foreign companies participating in the distribution of imported commodities and providing services regarding distribution,including maintainance,safekeep,storage,packaging,advertisement,freight transport,shipping express,marketing,and clients support.

5. China Mobile engages in not only basic mobile voice services but also various value-added services including fax,data,IP telephone,and multimedia. It has three service brands,namely “go tone”,“easy own”,and “M-zone”.

6. EU enterprises enjoy advanced equipment,technologies and management expertise in traditional sectors such as machinery,automobile,chemical industry and electronics and also in service sectors such as banking and insurance industries. These meet China’s need of economic restructuring. So EU enterprises and Chinese enterprises may carry out cooperation through multiple means.

7. This base will be given priority and perform 5 main functions:market information,modern warehousing,professional delivery,multi-mode combined transport,and exhibition and trading. It will help establish efficient connection between multiple transport means,such as road,railway,sea and air.

8. Siemens businesses are focused on 6 key areas:information and communications,automation and control,power,transportation,medical treatment and lighting.

9. Through opening up,industries like electronics,communications,home appliances and textile developed rapidly,and competitiveness of manufacture was improved.

10. On July 20,2005,China,Brunei,Indonesia,Malaysia,Myanmar,Singapore and Thailand started the mutual comprehensive tariff reduction,which were followed by other ASEAN countries one after another.

英汉练习

1. 美国主要向中国出售资金和技术密集型产品,例如飞机、发电设备、机械装置、电子产品、电信设备和化工机械,以及农产品,包括谷物和棉花。

2. 两国自四月起陷入贸易纠纷,当时日本提高了某些中国产品的进口关税,包括香菇、小葱和用于制造榻榻米的稻草。

3. 梅西百货销售不同的商品,包括男女儿童服装和配件、化妆品、家具等其他日常生活消费品。

4. 我们提供各种实际性服务,包括:咨询、市场调查、活动管理、海外市场介绍、贸易项目和展会和建立代表处。

5. 我们提供保密安全的交易。所以你可以出售钻石、手表、项链、戒指、手镯、耳环等旧珠宝,将其变为现金。

6. 自1975年以来,大气中甲烷增加了150%还多,多余的甲烷的主要来源有稻米种植农业、反刍动物饲养、白蚁养殖、垃圾填埋、采煤及石油和天然气的开采。

7. 美国人是否能够与其他国家的人民合作防止人口过剩、能源枯竭、污染灾难和浪费人类财富的行为?这一系列问题正是解决许多突出的经济、社会和政治问题的基础。

8. 亚太经合组织共有 21 个成员,它们是澳大利亚、文莱、加拿大、智利、中国、中国香港、印度尼西亚、日本、韩国、马来西亚、墨西哥、新西兰、巴布亚新几内亚、秘鲁、菲律宾、俄罗斯、新加坡、中国台北、泰国、美国和越南。

9. 福特公司旗下拥有的汽车品牌有福特、林肯、水星、马自达、沃尔沃、阿斯顿·马丁、捷豹和路虎。

10. 目前,西门子正在研发新的解决方案,以迎接未来来自卫生、能源、水处理、通信、交通、安防、物流和自动化领域的挑战。

第五部分 练习段落拓展

1.  工效学专家,Ergonetics公司总裁Tony Biafore称要打破这个恶性循环还是有办法的,而且并不需要昂贵的办公椅或者专家的帮助。

减少风险因素

为了避免疼痛和可能带来的慢性伤害,专家推荐下列降低工作姿势风险的方法:

采用自然坐姿。Biafore说,“一些人坐在椅子上,身体前倾,腿缩在下面。尤其在他们专心做事情的时候,”注意你的坐姿,如果你身体的任何部分觉得紧张、受压迫或者疼痛的时候,要调整你的椅子或者你的姿势。

正确的打字。不能不得不改变坐姿或者弯曲双手来打字。键盘应该就着你的高度。如果键盘的位置不合适就调整你的椅子位置或者弄一个键盘托。

检查你的视线。你的双眼应该可以自然的盯住电脑屏幕的中间。如果你不得不向上或者向下看,调整显示器的位置。这也适用于纸质文档的位置。

鼠标的问题。如果你要伸手够才能拿到鼠标,你的坐姿肯定有问题。

2.  规模很重要。单看中国的平均发展水平,其生活水准与泰国大体相当。只论规模的话,中国已是世界第二大经济体、最大的出口国(如果欧盟成员国被当作独立的经济体看待的话)和第二大进口国,还拥有全球最大的外汇储备。

中国领导人自然有理由将重心放在维护稳定和实现繁荣上。世界其他地区自然也有理由想知道,中国将如何运用其渐增的实力和责任。

迄今为止,尽管困难重重,但各方对中国的崛起一直适应得非常顺利,尤其是考虑到中国与老牌强国之间在文化、历史和政治体制方面的鸿沟。中国经济证明了自己具有非同寻常的活力,越来越以市场为导向。西方也让自己适应了中国的崛起。这是明智之举。

3.  Since I moved from the United Nations to the United States,six months have passed. And it’s time for me to submit to Beijing my initial report on my job as Ambassador here. I hope my interaction tonight with you will give me useful inspirations for my report.

I am honored to serve as Ambassador of China to the United States at such a historic juncture. The interests of our two countries are more closely tied to one another than ever before. Now we are each other’s second largest trading partner. In the last ten years,US exports to China increased by 330%. In the first eight months of this year,US exports to China grew by 34.4%. US direct investment in China has topped 64 billion US dollars and the US remains the No. 1 source of foreign direct investment for China. 2.5 million visits are made every year across the Pacific ocean. There are more than 100 000 Chinese students in the US. There have been 161 pairs of sister cities and 36 pairs of sister province/state relations between our two countries. We have also been working closely on numerous international and regional issues.

Looking back to the days when I just arrived here,I am glad to see that China-US relations have overcome the difficulties we saw earlier this year and are now back on track. One thing that has derived from my six month experience is that it is extremely important to keep our relationship stable and avoid major ups and downs. I would like to share with you three observations on this subject.

4. Recent developments in the international environment and progress in East Asia-Latin America cooperation have presented new tasks for FEALAC. The forum should follow the trend and advance with the changing times. We should enhance mutual understanding—the cornerstone of our cooperation. We should increase the all-dimensional exchanges among East Asian and Latin American countries,enrich and share the success stories in our development,solidify the foundation of our friendship and cooperation,and reinforce the awareness of an East Asia-Latin America family. We should focus on practical cooperation. We should bring into full play the complementarities between the two regions in economy,trade,culture,science,technology and other sectors to achieve mutual benefit and common progress. We should make countering global challenges our shared objective. We should,through intensified communication and coordination,broaden consensus and converging interests,make our common stand heard and play a bigger part in global cooperation. We should strengthen the forum’s institution building. We should adhere to the principle of consensus,integrate our resources,and steadily implement the reform measures to make our forum a more efficient and pragmatic platform for exchanges and cooperation.

参 考 文 献

Baddeley,A.D.. “The influence of acoustic and semantic similarity on long term memory for word sequences”.

Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,18,302-309.1964.

Baddeley,A.D. Human memory:theory and practice. Hove:Erlbaum Associates. 1990.

Conrad,R. “Acoustic Coriftisions in Immediate Memory”. British Journal of Psychology. 55,75-84.

Danica Seleskovitch. 口译技艺:即席口译与同声传译经验谈. 上海:上海翻译出版公司,1992.

George A. Miller.“The Magical Number Seven,Plus or Minus Two:Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information”. Psychological Review,1956.

Goodhead,Jared. Difference Between STM and LTM. www2.ntu.ac.uk/bscpsych/memory/goofhead.htm,1999

Harry Lorayne. A Thomas & co. Preston. How to develop a super powered memory. Hollywood:Frederick Fell Publishers,1989.

Posner,M.I. and Keele,S.W.. “Decay of Visual Information From a Single Letter”,Science,158,137-139. 1967.

Sperling,G. “The information available in brief visual presentations”. Psychological Mono-graphs:General and Applied. 74. (11,Whole No. 498),1960.

雷天放. 口译教程. 上海:上海外语教学出版社,2006.

梅德明. 英语口译实务. 北京:外文出版社,2009.

仲伟合. “Memory Training in Interpreting”. Translation Journal.,2003(7).

仲伟合,王斌华. 基础口译. 北京:外语教学与研究出版社,2009.